Advertisement

The Analysis of Verbal Behavior

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 159–174 | Cite as

Conditional Discrimination in the Intraverbal Relation: A Review and Recommendations for Future Research

Article

Abstract

Conditional discrimination is inherent in the intraverbal relation when one verbal stimulus alters the evocative effect of another verbal stimulus and they collectively evoke an intraverbal response. Rarely in research on conditional discriminations have both conditional and discriminative stimuli been vocal verbal and rarely have the responses been topography-based. Making conditional discriminations in intraverbal behavior is a repertoire that is often delayed in children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Reviewed in this paper is research on teaching intraverbal behavior, auditory conditional discriminations, and restricted stimulus control. The purpose of these reviews is to identify the extent to which previous researchers examined conditional discriminations in the intraverbal relation and to recommend directions for research in this area.

Keywords

intraverbal conditional discrimination verbal behavior autism developmental disabilities 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Braam, S. J., & Poling, A. (1983). Development of intraverbal behavior in mentally retarded individuals through transfer of stimulus control procedures: Classification of verbal responses. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 4, 279–302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Brinton, B., & Fujiki, M. (1994). Ability of institutionalized and community-based adults with retardation to respond to questions in an interview context. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 369–377.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Catania, A. C. (1998). Learning (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  4. Charlop, M. H. (1986). Setting effects on the occurrence of autistic children’s immediate echolalia. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 473–483.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Davis, C. A., Reichle, J., Southard, K., & Johnston, S. (1998). Teaching children with severe disabilities to utilize non-obligatory conversational opportunities: An application of high-probability requests. The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 23(1), 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dickson, C. A., Deutsch, C. K., Wang, S. S., & Dube, W. V. (2006). Matching-to-sample assessment of stimulus overselectivity in students with intellectual disabilities. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 111, 447–453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dube, W. V., Green, G., & Serna, R. W. (1993). Auditory successive conditional discrimination and auditory stimulus equivalence classes. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 59, 103–114.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Dube, W. V., & McIlvane, W. J. (1999). Reduction of stimulus overselectivity with nonverbal differential observing responses. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 25–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Finkel, A. S., & Williams, R. L. (2001). A comparison of textual and echoic prompts on the acquisition of intraverbal behavior in a six-year-old boy with autism. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 18, 61–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Foxx, R. M., & Faw, G. D. (2000). The pursuit of actual problem-solving behavior: An opportunity for behavior analysis. Behavior and Social Issues, 10, 71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goldsmith, T. R., LeBlanc, L. A., & Sautter, R. A. (2007). Teaching intraverbal behavior to children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 1, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goldstein, H., Angelo, D., & Mousetis, L. (1987). Acquisition and extension of syntactic repertoires by severely mentally retarded youth. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 8, 549–574.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Goldstein, H., & Brown, W. H. (1989). Observational learning of receptive and expressive language by handicapped preschool children. Education & Treatment of Children, 12, 5–37.Google Scholar
  14. Goldstein, H., & Mousetis, L. (1989). Generalized language learning by children with severe mental retardation: Effects of peers’ expressive modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22, 245–259.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Green, G. (2001). Behavior analytic instruction for learners with autism: Advances in stimulus control technology. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16, 72–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hall, G., & Chase, P. N. (1991). The relationship between stimulus equivalence and verbal behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 9, 107–119.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Hedbring, C., & Newsom, C. (1985). Visual overselectivity: A comparison of two instructional remediation procedures with autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 9–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ingvarsson, E. T., Tiger, J. H., Hanley, G. P., & Stephenson, K. M. (2007). An evaluation of intraverbal training to generate socially appropriate responses to novel questions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 411–429.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Jahr, E. (2001). Teaching children with autism to answer novel wh-questions by utilizing a multiple exemplar strategy. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 22, 407–423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kelly, S., Green, G., & Sidman, M. (1998). Visual identity matching and auditory-visual matching: A procedural note. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 237–243.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Koegel, R. L., Dunlap, G., Richman, G. S., & Dyer, K. (1981). The use of specific orienting cues for teaching discrimination tasks. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 1(2), 187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Koegel, R. L., Schreibman, L., Britten, K., & Laitinen, R. (1979). The effects of schedule of reinforcement on stimulus overselectivity in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 383–397.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Koegel, R. L., & Wilhelm, H. (1973). Selective responding to the components of multiple visual cues by autistic children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 15, 442–453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kolko, D. J., Anderson, L., & Campbell, M. (1980). Sensory preference and overselective responding in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10, 259–271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lane, S. D., & Critchfield, T. S. (1998). Increasing the generativity of identity-based procedures for establishing arbitrary conditional relations. Psychological Record, 48, 457–479.Google Scholar
  26. Loukusa, S., Leinonen, E., Jussila, K., Mattila, M., Ryder, N., Ebeling, H., Moilanen, I. (2007). Answering contextually demanding questions: Pragmatic errors produced by children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Journal of Communication Disorders, 40, 357–379.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Lovaas, O. I., Koegel, R. L., & Schreibman, L. (1979). Stimulus overselectivity in autism: A review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 1236–1254.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lovaas, O. I., & Schreibman, L. (1971). Stimulus overselectivity of autistic children in a two stimulus situation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 9, 305–310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lovaas, O. I., Schreibman, L., Koegel, R. L., & Rehm, R. (1971). Selective responding by autistic children to multiple sensory input. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 77, 211–222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Luciano, M. C. (1986). Acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of productive intraverbal behavior through transfer of stimulus control procedures. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 7, 1–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. McIlvane, W. J., Withstandley, J. K., & Stoddard, L. T. (1984). Positive and negative stimulus relations in severely retarded individuals’ conditional discrimination. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 4, 235–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mechling, L. C., Pridgen, L. S., & Cronin, B. A. (2005). Computer-based video instruction to teach student with intellectual disabilities to verbally respond to questions and make purchases in fast food restaurants. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 40 (1), 47–59.Google Scholar
  33. Meltzer, D. (1983). Conditional discrimination with ambiguous stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 39, 241–249.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Michael, J. (1985). Two kinds of verbal behavior plus a possible third. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 3, 1–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Michael, J. (2003). The mutliple control of behavior. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  36. Miguel, C. F., Petursdottir, A. I., & Carr, J. E. (2005). The effects of multiple-tact and receptive discrimination training on the acquisition of intraverbal behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 21, 27–41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Newcomer, P., & Hammill, D. (1997). Test of language development—Primary: Third Edition. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  38. Nigam, R., Schlosser, R. W., & Lloyd, L. L. (2006). Concomitant use of the matrix strategy and the mand-model procedure in teaching graphic symbol combinations. AAC: Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 22, 160–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Partington, J. W., & Bailey, J. S. (1993). Teaching intraverbal behavior to preschool children. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 11, 9–18.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Perez-Gonzalez, L. A., Garcia-Asenjo, L., Williams, G., & Carnerero, J. J. (2007). Emergence of intraverbal antonyms in children with pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 697–701.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Polson, D. A. D., & Parsons, J. A. (2000). Selection-based versus topography-based responding: An important distinction for stimulus equivalence? The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 17, 105–128.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Prizant, B. M., & Duchan, J. F. (1981). The functions of immediate echolalia in autistic children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 46, 241–249.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Saunders, K. J., & Spradlin, J. E. (1989). Conditional discrimination in mentally retarded adults: The effect of training the component simple discriminations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 52, 1–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Saunders, K. J., & Spradlin, J. E. (1993). Conditional discrimination in mentally retarded subjects: Programming acquisition and learning set. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 60, 571–585.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Saunders, R. R., Wachter, J., & Spradlin, J. E. (1988). Establishing auditory stimulus control over an eight-member equivalence class via conditional discrimination procedures. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 49, 95–115.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Schover, L. R., & Newsom, C. D. (1976). Overselectivity, developmental level and overtraining in autistic and normal children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 289–298.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Schreibman, L. (1988). Diagnostic features of autism. Journal of Child Neurology, 3, 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schreibman, L., Kohlenberg, B. S., & Britten, K. R. (1986). Differential responding to content and intonation components of a complex auditory stimulus by nonverbal and echolalic autistic children. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 6, 109–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schrier, A. M., & Thompson, C. R. (1980). Conditional discrimination learning: A critique and amplification. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 33, 291–298.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Serna, R. W., Stoddard, L. T., & McIlvane, W. J. (1992). Developing auditory stimulus control: A note on methodology. Journal of Behavioral Education, 2, 391–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sherer, M., Pierce, K. L., Paredes, S., Kisacky, K. L., Ingersoll, B., & Schreibman, L. (2001). Enhancing conversation skills in children with autism via video technology: Which is better, “self” or “other” as a model? Behavior Modification, 25, 140–158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Sidman, M. (1994). Equivalence relations and behavior: A research story. Boston: Authors Cooperative.Google Scholar
  53. Sidman, M., & Cresson, O. (1973). Reading and crossmodal transfer of stimulus equivalences in severe retardation. American Journal on Mental Deficiency, 77, 515–523.Google Scholar
  54. Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Skinner, B. F. (1984). An operant analysis of problem solving. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7, 583–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Smeets, P. M., Hoogeveen, F. R., Striefel, S., & Lancioni, G. E. (1985). Stimulus overselectivity in TMR children: Establishing functional control of simultaneous multiple stimuli. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 5, 247–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Stoddard, L. T. (1982). An investigation of automated methods for teaching severely retarded individuals. In N. R. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation (pp. 163–207). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  58. Stoddard, L. T., & McIlvane, W. J. (1989). Establishing control by spoken words with profoundly mentally retarded individuals. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 10, 141–151.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Striefel, S., Wetherby, B., & Karlan, G. (1978). Developing generalized instruction-following behavior in severely retarded people. In C. E. Meyers (Ed.), Quality of life in severely and profoundly mentally retarded people: Research foundations for improvement (pp. 267–326). Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Deficiency.Google Scholar
  60. Summers, J. A., Rincover, A., & Feldman, M. A. (1993). Comparison of extra- and within-stimulus prompting to teach prepositional discriminations to preschool children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3, 287–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sundberg, M. L. (in press). The verbal behavior milestones assessment and placement program: The VB-MAPP. Concord, CA: AVB Press.Google Scholar
  62. Sundberg, M. L. (2006a, May). The analysis of complex human behavior: Teaching intraverbal behavior to children with autism. Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis International, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  63. Sundberg, M. L. (2006b, May). Using Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior for language assessment and intervention for children with autism. Workshop presented at the 32nd Annual Convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis International, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  64. Sundberg, M. L., & Michael, J. (2001). The benefits of Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior for children with autism. Behavior Modification, 25, 698–724.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Sundberg, M. L., & Partington, J. W. (1998). Teaching language to children with autism or other developmental disabilities. Pleasant Hill, CA: Behavior Analysts, Inc.Google Scholar
  66. Sundberg, M. L., San Juan, B., Dawdy, M., & Arguelles, M. (1990). The acquisition of tacts, mands, and intraverbals by individuals with traumatic brain injury. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 8, 83–99.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Sundberg, C. T., & Sundberg, M. L. (1990). Comparing topography-based verbal behavior with stimulus selection-based verbal behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 8, 31–41.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Walpole, C. W., Roscoe, E. M., & Dube, W. V. (2007). Use of a differential observing response to expand restricted stimulus control. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 707–712.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Watkins, C. L., Pack-Teixeira, L. & Howard, J. S. (1989). Teaching intraverbal behavior to severely retarded children. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 7, 69–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Wechsler, D. (1974) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised. New York: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  71. Wolfe, V. F., & Cuvo, A. J. (1978). Effects of within-stimulus and extra-stimulus prompting on letter discrimination by mentally retarded persons. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 3, 297–303.Google Scholar
  72. Yarczower, M. (1971). Stimulus control during conditional discrimination. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 16, 89–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Behavior Analysis International 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Special Education, School of Physical Activity and Educational ServicesThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations