The Effects of a Delay of Noncontingent Reinforcement during a Pairing Procedure in the Development of Stimulus Control of Automatically Reinforced Vocalizations
- 16 Downloads
Children with autism and related disabilities frequently fail to develop echoic repertoires. Among the ways in which treatment approaches vary is the extent to which automatic reinforcement is utilized. The present experiment was designed to test the efficacy of a procedure that incorporates automatic reinforcement and socially mediated reinforcement in the development of an echoic repertoire. The implementation of this treatment package resulted in an increase in the vocal play and echoic behavior for two participants, each of whom had very limited verbal repertoires. The study was conducted as a multiple probe across sounds design. Vocal play for Participant 1 increased from baseline rates as low as.2 per min to 4.5 per min during treatment, and her percent correct echoic behavior increased from 0% to at least 90% on both sounds. Participant 2 showed rapid gains in echoic control on one sound before requiring dismissal from the study. Interobserver agreement on the occurrence of target vocals equaled 100%. The results of this study have implications for which procedures to use in the establishment of echoic, echoic mand, and mand repertoires.
Key wordsechoic mand automatic reinforcement
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bijou, S. W., & Baer, D. M. (1965). Child development II: Universal stage of infancy. Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Bijou, S. W., & Ghezzi, P. M. (1999). The behavior interference theory of autistic behavior in young children. In M. Ghezzi, L. Williams, & J. Carr, (Eds.), Autism: behavior analytic perspectives (pp. 33–43). Reno, NV: Context Press.Google Scholar
- Bondy, A. S., & Frost, L. A. (1993). Mands across the water: A report on the application of the picture-exchange communication system in Peru. The Behavior Analyst, 16, 123–128.Google Scholar
- Englemann, S., & Carnine, D. (1982). Theory of instruction: principles and applications. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
- Michael, J. L. (1993). Concepts and principles of behavior analysis. Kalamazoo, MI: Association for Behavior Analysis.Google Scholar
- Miguel, C. F. (2001). The effects of automatic reinforcement on vocal behavior of children diagnosed with autism. Unpublished manuscript, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI.Google Scholar
- Ross, D., & Greer, R. D. (1998, May). Behavioral momentum across response classes to induce echoics and mands with children with autism who had no prior vocal-verbal repertoires. Douglas Greer (chair), Experimental Analyses in Applied Settings: New Controlling Variables for the Behavior of YoungChildren with Autism or Language Delays. Symposium at 24th annual convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
- Sundberg, M. L., & Partington, J. W. (1998). Teaching language to children with autism or other developmental disabilities. Pleasant Hill, CA: Behavior Analysts, Inc.Google Scholar
- Thompson, R. (2001, May). Utilization of a sterile environment to facilitate the acquisition of mands in children with autism. In John Esch (chair), Teaching Verbal Behavior to Children with Autism. Symposium conducted at the 27th annual convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
- Vaughan, M. E., & Michael, J. L. (1982). Automatic reinforcement: An important but ignored concept. Behaviorism 10, 217–227.Google Scholar
- Yoon, S. (1998). Effects of an adult’s vocal sound paired with a reinforcing event on the subsequent acquisition of mand functions. UMI Dissertation Services (UMI), Number TX 4-872-654). A Bell & Howell Company. Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar