Advertisement

The Analysis of Verbal Behavior

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 41–56 | Cite as

Role of Contextual Control in Second Language Performance

Article

Abstract

Transfer of training from an instructional environment to a natural environment may bring about ineffective language performance by bilingual individuals. In that regard, this study was designed to demonstrate the effect of such a transition on individuals’ language performance. A series of Japanese and English words were used as sample and comparisons in a matching procedure. Differential conditioning was implemented in the presence two types of contextual stimuli. After three sets of relations were established, the physical configuration of the contextual stimuli was changed to more subtle appearances, and the number of variations in the contextual stimuli was increased. Measures of percent correct and response latency were used to show the negative influence on second language performance. Percent correct responses decreased with the subtle contextual stimuli for 11 out of 14 participants, and average response latency increased with the increased number of variations in the last phase. These findings indicate that the change in environmental stimuli will be a significant participatory factor in training of second languages.

Key words

contextual control conditional discrimination second language performance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andreou, E., Andreou, G., & Vlachos, F. (in press). Studying orientations and performance on verbal fluency tasks in a second language. Learning and Individual Differences.Google Scholar
  2. Batstone, R. (2002). Contexts of engagement: A discourse perspective on “intake” and “pushed output.” System, 30, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bouton, L. F. (1994). Conversational implicature in a second language: Learned slowly when not deliberately taught. Journal of Pragmatics, 22, 157–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bush, K. M., Sidman, M. & Rose, T. (1989). Contextual control of emergent equivalence relations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 51, 29–45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Collentine, J., & Freed, B. F. (2004). Learning context and its effects on second language acquisition: Introduction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 153–171.Google Scholar
  6. Devitto, Z., & Burgess, C. (2004). Theoretical and methodological implications of language experience and vocabulary skill: Priming of strongly and weakly associated words. Brain and Cognition, 55, 295–299.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dibbets, P., Maes, J. H. R., & Vossen, J. M. H. (2002). Contextual dependencies in a stimulus equivalence paradigm. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 97–119.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Dougher, M., Perkins, D. R., Greenway, D., Koons, A., & Chiasson, C. (2002). Contextual control of equivalence-based transformation of functions. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 78, 63–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Green, M. R. (1986). Contextual control of stimulus equivalence with preschool children (Doctoral dissertation, Utah State University, 1986). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 2652–2653.Google Scholar
  10. Griffee, K., & Dougher, M. J. (2002). Contextual control of stimulus generalization and stimulus equivalence in hierarchical categorization. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 78, 433–447.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Hamilton, R. P. (2001). The insignificance of learners’ errors: A philosophical investigation of the interlanguage hypothesis. Language & Communication, 21, 73–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hayes, S. C., Kohlenberg, B. S., & Hayes, L. J. (1991). The transfer of specific and general consequential functions through simple and conditional equivalence relations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 56, 119–137.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Herbst, S. A., Houmanfar, R., & Washio, Y. (2003). An experimental evaluation of optimal conditions for facilitating second language acquisition. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Nevada, Reno.Google Scholar
  14. Houmanfar, R., Hayes, L., & Herbst, S. A. (2005). An analog study of first language dominance and interference over second language. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 21, 75–98.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Huckin, T. N., & Jin, Z. (1986). Inferring wordmeaning from context: A study in second language acquisition. Proceedings of the Eastern States Conference on Linguistics, 3, 271–280.Google Scholar
  16. Kang, S. (1995). The effects of a context-embedded approach to second-language vocabulary learning. System, 23, 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kecskes, I. (2000). A cognitive-pragmatic approach to situation-bound utterances. Journal of Pragmatics, 32, 605–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Keppel, G. (1991). Design and analysis: A researcher’s handbook (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  19. Kormos, J., & Denes, M. (2004). Exploring measures and perceptions of fluency in the speech of second language learners. System, 32, 145–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kotz, S. A., & Elston-Guttler, K. (2004). The role of proficiency on processing categorical and associative information in the L2 as revealed by reaction times and event-related brain potentials. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 17, 215–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Larsen-Freeman, D. (2003). Teaching lan guage: From grammar to grammaring. Boston: Thomson Heinle.Google Scholar
  22. Liu, M. (1995). Contextual enrichment through hypermedia technology: Implications for second-language learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 11, 439–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lochtman, K. (2002). Oral corrective feedback in the foreign language classroom: How it affects interaction in analytic foreign language teaching. International Journal of Educational Research, 37, 271–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mackey, A., & Oliver, R. (2002). Interactional feedback and children’s L2 development. System, 30, 459–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. MacWhinney, B. (1997). Implicit and explicit processes. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 277–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McElree, B., Jia, G., & Litvak, A. (2000). The time course of conceptual processing in three bilingual populations. Journal of Memory and Language, 42, 229–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Moeller, A. K. (1995). Implications of research for second language learning and teaching. International Journal of Educational Research, 23, 649–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Osborne, J. G., & Koppel, L. (2001). Acquisition, generalization, and contextual control of taxonomic and thematic relational responding. Psychological Record, 51, 185–205.Google Scholar
  29. Oxford, R. L., & Scarcella, R. C. (1994). Second language vocabulary learning among adults: State of the art in vocabulary instruction. System, 22, 231–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Serna, R. W., & Perez-Gonzalez, L. A. (2003). An analysis of generalized contextual control of conditional discriminations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 79, 383–393.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Sidman, M., & Tailby, W. (1982). Conditional discrimination versus matching to sample: An expansion of the testing paradigm. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 5–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Steele, D., & Hayes, S. (1991). Stimulus equivalence and arbitrarily applicable relational responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 56, 519–555.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Swartzentruber, D. (1993). Transfer of contextual control across similarly trained conditioned stimuli. Animal Learning & Behavior, 21, 14–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Trillo, J. R. (2002). The pragmatic fossilization of discourse markers in non-native speakers of English. Journal of Pragmatics, 34, 769–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vesterbacka, S. (1991). Ritualised routines and L2 acquisition: Acquisition strategies in an immersion program. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 12, 35–43. Word Association Thesaurus. http://www.eat.rl.ac.uk/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wulfert, E., & Hayes, S. (1988). Transfer of a conditional ordering response through conditional equivalence classes. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 50, 125–144.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Behavior Analysis International 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology/296University of NevadaRenoUSA

Personalised recommendations