The Analysis of Verbal Behavior

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 99–116 | Cite as

Novel Dictation and Intraverbal Responses as a Function of a Multiple Exemplar Instructional History



We tested the effect of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) on acquisition of joint spelling responses, vocal to written and vice versa, for three sets of five words by four kindergarteners with language delays using a delayed multiple probe design. First, students were taught to spell Set 1 as either vocal or written responses (two vocal and two written) and probed on untaught responses. Next students were taught Set 2 using MEI (i.e., alternating responses) and again probed untaught responses for Set 1. Finally, Set 3 was taught in a single response and students were probed on untaught responses. Two students spelled none of Set 1 untaught responses before MEI, while two spelled the words at 60% accuracy or 10% accuracy. After MEI on Set 2, all students spelled untaught responses for Set 1 at 80% to 100% accuracy and Set 3 at 80% to 100% accuracy. The MEI resulted in joint stimulus function such that formerly independent responses came under the same stimulus control. We replicated these results with four other kindergartners with autism who performed academically above their typically developing peers. The results are discussed in terms of Skinner’s treatment of the independence of the two verbal operants.

Key words

spelling multiple exemplar instruction independence of verbal operants transformation of function 


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Copyright information

© Association of Behavior Analysis International 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Douglas Greer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lynn Yaun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Grant Gautreaux
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Teachers CollegeColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Graduate School of Arts and SciencesColumbia UniversityUSA

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