Contriving Establishing Operations to Teach Mands for Information
- 22 Downloads
Many children with autism cannot effectively ask wh- questions to mand for information, even though they may have extensive tact, intraverbal, and receptive language skills. Wh-questions are typically mands because they occur under the control of establishing operations (EOs) and result in specific reinforcement. The current study first investigated a procedure to teach the mand “where?” to children with autism by contriving an EO for the location of a missing item. Following the successful acquisition of this mand, an establishing operation for a specific person was contrived to teach the mand “who?” The results showed that the children acquired these mands when the relevant establishing operations were manipulated as independent variables. The children also demonstrated generalization to untrained items and to the natural environment. These results have implications for methods of language instruction for children who have difficulty acquiring mands for information.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Brown, R., Cazden, C, & Bellugi, U. (1969). The child’s grammar from I to III. In J. R Hill (Ed.), The 1967 symposium on child psychology (pp. 28–73). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- Knapczyk, D. R. (1989). Generalization of student question asking from special class to regular class settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, , 77–83.Google Scholar
- Koegel, L. K. (1996). Communication and language intervention. In R. L. Koegel & L.K. Koegel (Eds.), Strategies for initiating positive interaction and improving learning opportunities (pp. 17–32). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
- McNeill, D. (1970). The acquisition of language. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
- Slobin, D. I. (1971). Psycholinguistics. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.Google Scholar
- Sundberg, M. L., & Partington, J. W. (1998). Teaching language to children with autism or other developmental disabilities. Pleasant Hill, CA: Behavior Analysts, Inc.Google Scholar
- Ulman, J. D., & Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1975). Multielement baseline design in educational research. In E. Ramp & G. Semb (Eds.), Behavior analysis: Areas of research and application (pp. 377–391). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Warren, S. F, Baxter, D. K., Anderson, S. R., Marshall, A., & Baer, D. M. (1981). Generalization of question-asking by severely retarded individuals. Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped, 6, 15–22.Google Scholar