The Analysis of Verbal Behavior

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 41–53 | Cite as

Teaching mands by manipulating conditioned establishing operations

  • Genae Hall
  • Mark L. Sundberg
Article

Abstract

Skinner’s (1957) analysis of verbal behavior suggests the functional independence of the verbal operants. However, only a few empirical studies have directly examined the nature of these operants, and their independence. The present study evaluated whether teaching topographies as tacts would lead to their emission as mands. The results indicated that manding only occurred reliably after direct mand training, which consisted of the use of imitative and tact prompts, and fading those prompts, to transfer stimulus control from nonverbal stimuli to conditioned establishing operations. The results contribute to the existing data on the functional independence of mands and tacts, as well as demonstrate the value of manipulating conditioned establishing operations for mand training.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baer, D., Wolf, M., & Risley, T. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91–97.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 111–126.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Carr, E. G., & Kologinsky, E. (1983). Acquisition of sign language by autistic children. II: Spontaneity and generalization effects. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 297–314.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Charlop, M. H., Schreibman, L., & Thibodeau, M. G. (1985). Increasing spontaneous verbal responding in autistic children using a time delay procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 155–166.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Halle, J. W., Baer, D. M., & Spradlin, J. E. (1981). Teacher’s generalized use of delay as a stimulus control procedure to increase language use in handicapped children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 389–409.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Halle, J. W., Marshall, A. M., and Spradlin, J. E. (1979). Time delay: A technique to increase language use and facilitate generalization in retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 431–439.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Establishing use of descriptive adjectives in the spontaneous speech of disadvantaged preschool children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 109–120.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1974). Using preschool materials to modify the language of disadvantaged children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 243–256.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1975). Incidental teaching of language in the preschool. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 411–420.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1980). In vivo language intervention: Unanticipated general effects. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 407–432.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Lamarre, J., & Holland, J. (1985). The functional independence of mands and tacts. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 43, 5–19.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Lee, V. L. (1981). Prepositional phrases spoken and heard. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 35, 227–242.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee, V. L., & Pegler, A. (1982). Effects on spelling of training children to read. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 311–322.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Lovaas, O. I. (1977). The autistic child: Language development through behavior modification. New York: Irvington Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  15. Michael, J. L. (1982a). Distinguishing between the discriminative and motivational functions of stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 149–155.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Michael, J. L. (1982b). Skinner’s verbal operants: Some new categories. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 1,1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Michael, J. L. (1987). Advanced topics in behavior analysis. Unpublished paper.Google Scholar
  18. Michael, J. L., Whitley, P., & Hesse, B. E. (1983). The pigeon parlance project. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 2, 6–9.Google Scholar
  19. Peterson, N. (1978). An introduction to verbal behavior. Grand Rapids, MI: Behavior Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  20. Savage-Rumbaugh, S.E. (1984). Verbal behavior at a procedural level in the chimpanzee. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 41, 223–250.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Sidman, M. (1971). Reading and auditory-visual equivalences. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 14, 5–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Simic, J., & Bucher, B. (1980). Development of spontaneous manding in nonverbal children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 523–528.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sundberg, M. L. (1985). Teaching verbal behavior to pigeons. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 3, 11–17.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Ulman, J. D., & Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1975). Multielement baseline design in educational research. In E. Ramp & G. Semb (Eds.), Behavior analysis: Areas of research and application. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  26. Vargas, E. (1986). Intraverbal behavior. In L. J. Parrott & P. N. Chase (Eds.), Psychological aspects of language: The West Virginia lectures (pp. 128–151). Springfield: C. C. Thomas.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Behavior Analysis International 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Genae Hall
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mark L. Sundberg
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA
  2. 2.Sundberg & AssociatesConcordUSA

Personalised recommendations