Advertisement

The Analysis of Verbal Behavior

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 30–38 | Cite as

Dysfunctional control by client verbal behavior: The context of reason-giving

  • Robert D. Zettle
  • Steven C. Hayes
Article

Abstract

Dysfunctional control exerted by reason-giving in adult psychopathology is interpreted from a radical behavioral perspective. Verbal-social contingencies which support the establishment of reason-giving and its control over maladaptive actions are reviewed. A contextual approach to psychotherapy, comprehensive distancing, which attempts to weaken dysfunctional verbal control is described briefly. Data relevant to therapeutic process are presented. The overall results suggest that comprehensive distancing facilitates therapeutic change through a process consistent with a behavioral analysis of reason-giving. Suggestions for further research and radical behavioral approaches to psychotherapy are discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  2. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  3. Bem, D. J. (1972). Self-perception theory. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 2–62). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bentall, R. P., Lowe, C. F., & Beasty, A. (1985). The role of verbal behavior in human learning: II. Developmental differences. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 43, 165–181.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Catania, A. C., Matthews, B. A., & Shimoff, E. (1982). Instructional versus shaped human verbal behavior: Interactions with nonverbal responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 38, 233–248.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Deitz, S. M. (1985, May). Understanding the mental idioms in children’s language. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Columbus, OH.Google Scholar
  7. Devany, J. M., Hayes, S. C., & Nelson, R. O. (in press). Stimulus equivalence in language able and disabled children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.Google Scholar
  8. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Secaucus, NJ: Stuart.Google Scholar
  9. Ellis, A. (1973). Humanistic psychotherapy. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  10. Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1984). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  11. Ferster, C. B. (1972). An experimental analysis of clinical phenomena. The Psychological Record, 22, 1–16.Google Scholar
  12. Ferster, C. B. (1979a). A laboratory model of psychotherapy: The boundary between clinical practice and experimental psychology. In P. O. Sjoden, S. Bates, & W. S. Dockens III (Eds.), Trends in behavior therapy (pp. 23–38). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  13. Ferster, C. B. (1979b). Psychotherapy from the standpoint of a behaviorist. In J. D. Keehn (Ed.), Psychopathology in animals: Research and clinical implications (pp. 279–303). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. Glenn, S. S. (1983). Maladaptive functional relations in client verbal behavior. The Behavior Analyst, 6, 47–56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 23, 56–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Hayes, S. C. (in press). A contextual approach to therapeutic change. In N. Jacobson (Ed.), Cognitive and behavior therapies in clinical practice. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  17. Hayes, S. C., & Brownstein, A. J. (1986). Mentalism, behavior-behavior relationships, and the purpose of science. Unpublished manuscript, University of North Carolina at Greensboro.Google Scholar
  18. Hayes, S. C., Brownstein, A. J., Zettle, R. D., Rosenfarb, I., & Korn, Z. (in press). Rule-governed behavior and sensitivity to changing contingencies. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.Google Scholar
  19. Hollon, S. D., & Kendall, P. C. (1980). Cognitive self-statements in depression: Development of an automatic thoughts questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4, 383–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Layng, T. V. J., & Andronis, P. T. (1984). Toward a functional analysis of delusional speech and hallucinatory behavior. The Behavior Analyst, 7, 139–156.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Mahoney, M. A (1974). Cognition and behavior modification. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  22. Matthews, B. A., Catania, A. C., & Shimoff, E. (1985). Effects of uninstructed verbal behavior on nonverbal responding: Contingency descriptions versus performance descriptions. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 43, 155–164.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Nisbett, R. E., & Ross, L. (1980). Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  24. Nisbett, R. E. & Wilson, T. D. (1977). Telling more than we know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84, 231–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rush, A. J., Beck, A. T., Kovacs, M., & Hollon, S. (1977). Comparative efficacy of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depressed out-patients. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 17–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Siegel, S. (1956). Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  27. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  28. Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Skinner, B. F. (1969). Contingencies of reinforcement: A theoretical analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  30. Skinner, B. F. (1974). About behaviorism. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  31. Wynne, L. (1984, May). Issues in the assessment of psychotic speech. In S. Leigland (Chair), Implications of Skinner’s Verbal behavior for clinical assessment. Symposium conducted at the annual convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Nashville.Google Scholar
  32. Zettle, R. D. (1980, November). Insight: Rules and revelations. In S. C. Hayes (Chair), The baby and the bathwater: Radical behavioral interpretations of traditional clinical phenomena. Symposium conducted at the annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Zettle, R. D. & Hayes, S. C. (1982). Rule-governed behavior: A potential theoretical framework for cognitive-behavioral therapy. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.), Advances in cognitive-behavioral research and therapy (Vol. 1, pp. 73–118). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zettle, R. D., & Hayes, S. C. (1984, August). Cognitive therapy of depression: Behavioral analysis of component and process issues. In S. C. Hayes (Chair), Behavior analytic perspectives on current issues in clinical psychology. Symposium conducted at the 92nd annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Behavior Analysis International 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert D. Zettle
    • 1
  • Steven C. Hayes
    • 2
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentWichita State UniversityWichitaUSA
  2. 2.University of North CarolinaGreensboroUSA

Personalised recommendations