The Behavior Analyst

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 49–60 | Cite as

Reflections on Some Early Events Related to Behavior Analysis of Child Development

  • Sidney W. Bijou
Article

Abstract

A series of events related to the early application of behavioral principles to child behavior and development is described. The events began in the 1930s at Columbia University with a solicited letter from John B. Watson suggesting a master’s degree thesis problem, and continued through the 1950s and 1960s at the University of Washington. Specifically, these happenings resulted in (a) research demonstrating that Skinner’s laboratory method for studying nonhuman organisms could be profitably applied to the laboratory study of young normal children; (b) a demonstration that by successive approximations, a normal child can be operantly conditioned to respond to an arbitrary situation; (c) research showing that the effects of simple schedules of reinforcement obtained with nonhuman organisms could be duplicated in young normal and retarded children; (d) the demonstration that Skinner’s operant laboratory method could be adapted to study young children in field situations; (e) research showing that operant principles can be successfully applied to the treatment of a young autistic boy with a serious visual handicap; (f) laboratory studies showing that mothers can be trained to treat their own young children who have behavior problems; (g) an in-home study demonstrating that a mother can treat her own child who has behavior problems; (h) a demonstration that operant principles can be applied effectively to teaching reading, writing, and arithmetic to children with retardation; and (i) publication of a book, Child Development: A Systematic and Empirical Theory, in collaboration with Donald M. Baer, by Prentice Hall in their Century Psychological Series.

Key words

child behavior child development applied behavior analysis research methodology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, K. E., Hart, B. M., Buell, J. S., Harris, F. R., & Wolf, M. M. (1964). Effects of social reinforcement on isolate behavior of a nursery school child. Child Development, 35, 511–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bijou, S. W. (1938). The performance of normal children on the Randall’s Island Performance Series. Journal of Applied Psychology, 22, 186–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bijou, S. W. (1942). The development of a conditioning methodology for studying experimental neurosis in the rat. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 44, 91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bijou, S. W. (1943). A study of experimental neurosis in the rat by the conditioned response technique. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 36, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bijou, S. W. (1951). A conditioned response technique to investigate experimental neurosis in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 44, 84–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bijou, S. W. (1955). A systematic approach to an experimental analysis of young children. Child Development, 26, 161–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bijou, S. W. (1957a). Methodology for an experimental analysis of child behavior. Psychological Reports, 3, 243–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bijou, S. W. (1957b). Patterns of reinforcement and resistance to extinction in young children. Child Development, 28, 47–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bijou, S. W. (1958a). A child study laboratory on wheels. Child Development, 29, 425–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bijou, S. W. (1958b). Operant extinction after fixed-interval schedules with young children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1, 25–29.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Bijou, S. W. (1961). Discrimination performance as a baseline for individual analysis of young children. Child Development, 32, 163–170.Google Scholar
  12. Bijou, S. W., & Baer, D. M. (1961). Child development: A systematic and empirical theory. Vol. 1. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bijou, S. W., Birnbrauer, J. S., Kidder, J. D., & Tague, C. (1966). Programmed instruction as an approach to the teaching of reading, writing, and arithmetic to retarded children. Psychological Record, 16, 505–522.Google Scholar
  14. Bijou, S. W., & Grimm, J. A. (1973). Principles and objectives in the academic program for young handicapped children. In G. Semb (Ed.), Behavior analysis and education1972 (pp. 146–154). Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bijou, S. W., Grimm, J. A., & Parsons, J. A. (1973). A problem-solving model for teaching remedial arithmetic to young handicapped children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1, 26–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bijou, S. W., Peterson, R. F., & Ault, M. H. (1968). A method to integrate descriptive and experimental field studies at the level of data and empirical concepts. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 175–191.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Bijou, S. W., Peterson, R. F., Harris, F. R., Allen, A. K., & Johnston, M. S. (1969). Methodology for experimental studies of young children in natural settings. Psychological Record, 19, 177–210.Google Scholar
  18. Birnbrauer, J. S., Wolf, M. M., Kidder, J. D., & Tague, C. (1965). Classroom behavior of retarded pupils with token reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2, 219–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Edgar, E., & Sulzbacker, S. (1992). Influences and effects of the behavior paradigm in special education. In R. P. West & L. A. Hamerlynck (Eds.), Designs for excellence in education: The legacy of B. F. Skinner (pp. 187–221). Longmont, CO: Sophris West.Google Scholar
  20. Ferster, C. B., & DeMyer, M. K. (1961). The development of performances in autistic children in an automatically controlled environment. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 13, 312–345.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ferster, C. B., & Skinner, B. F. (1957). Schedules of reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harris, F. R., Johnston, M. K., Kelley, C. S., & Wolf, M. M. (1964). Effects of positive social reinforcement on regressed crawling of a nursery school child. Journal of Educational Psychology, 55, 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harris, F. R., Wolf, M. M., & Baer, D. M. (1964). Effects of adult social reinforcement on child behavior. Young Children, 20, 8–17.Google Scholar
  24. Hart, B. M., Allen, K. E., Buell, J. S., Harris, F. R., & Wolf, M. M. (1964). Effects of social reinforcement on operant crying. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1, 145–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hawkins, R. P., Peterson, R. F., Schweid, E., & Bijou, S. W. (1966). Behavior therapy in the home: Amelioration of problem parent-child relations with the parent in a therapeutic role. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 4, 99–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Orlando, R., & Bijou, S. W. (1960). Single and multiple schedules of reinforcement in developmentally retarded children. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 4, 339–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Orlando, R., Bijou, S. W., Tyler, R. M., & Marshall, D. A. (1960). A laboratory for the experimental analysis of developmentally retarded children. Psychological Reports, 7, 261–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sears, R. R. (1947a). Child psychology. In W. Dennis (Ed.), Current trends in psychology (pp. 50–74). Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sears, R. R. (1947b). Influence of methodological factors on doll play performance. Child Development, 18, 190–197.Google Scholar
  30. Sears, R. R., Whiting, J. W. M., Nowlis, V., & Sears, P. S. (1953). Some child-rearing antecedents of organism and dependency in young children. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 47, 135–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Shearer, M. S., & Shearer, D. E. (1972). The Portage Project: A model for early childhood education. Exceptional Children, 36, 210–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  33. Smith, S., & Guthrie, E. R. (1930). General psychology in terms of behaviorism. New York: Appleton.Google Scholar
  34. Staats, A. W., Staats, C. K., Schutz, R. E., & Wolf, M. M. (1962). The conditioning of textual responses using “extrinsic” reinforcers. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 5, 33–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Wahler, R. C., Winkel, G. H., Peterson, R. F., & Morrison, D. C. (1965). Mothers as behavior therapists for their own children. Behavior Research and Therapy, 3, 113–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Watson, J. B. (1919). Psychology from the standpoint of a behaviorist. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wolf, M. M., Risley, T. R., Johnston, M. K., Harris, F. R., & Allen, K. E. (1967). Application of operant conditioning procedures to the behavior problems of an autistic child: A follow up and extension. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 5, 103–111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Wolf, M. M., Risley, T. R., & Mees, H. (1964). Application of operant conditioning procedures to the behavior problems of an autistic child. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1, 305–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sidney W. Bijou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology/296University of NevadaRenoUSA

Personalised recommendations