The Behavior Analyst

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 253–269 | Cite as

Stimulus Control: Part II

  • James A. Dinsmoor
Tutorial

Abstract

The second part of my tutorial stresses the systematic importance of two parameters of discrimination training: (a) the magnitude of the physical difference between the positive and the negative stimulus (disparity) and (b) the magnitude of the difference between the positive stimulus, in particular, and the background stimulation (salience). It then examines the role these variables play in such complex phenomena as blocking and overshadowing, progressive discrimination training, and the transfer of control by fading. It concludes by considering concept formation and imitation, which are important forms of application, and recent work on equivalence relations.

Key words

stimulus control disparity salience blocking overshadowing transfer fading concept formation imitation equivalence relations 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anthony, T., Copper, C., & Mullen, B. (1992). Cross-racial facial identification: A social cognitive integration. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 296–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baer, D. M., Peterson, R. F., & Sherman, J. A. (1967). The development of imitation by reinforcing behavioral similarity to a model. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 10, 405–416.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1965). Vicarious processes: A case of no-trial learning. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 1–55). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Blanchard, R. (1977). Control of observing by antecedent stimuli. Learning and Motivation, 8, 569–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blough, D. S. (1969). Attention shifts in a maintained discrimination. Science, 166, 125–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cook, D. A. (1960). On vanishing stimuli in instructional material. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 3, 292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cumming, W. W., & Berryman, R. (1965). The complex discriminated operant: Studies of matching-to-sample and related problems. In D. I. Mostofsky (Ed.), Stimulus generalization (pp. 284–330). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Dinsmoor, J. A. (1983). Observing and conditioned reinforcement. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6, 693–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dinsmoor, J. A., Bowe, C. A., Dout, D. L., Martin, L. T., Mueller, K. L., & Workman, J. D. (1983). Separating the effects of salience and disparity on the rate of observing. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 40, 253–264.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Dinsmoor, J. A., Mueller, K. L., Martin, L. T., & Bowe, C. A. (1982). The acquisition of observing. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 38, 249–263.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Dinsmoor, J. A., Sears, G. W., & Dout, D. L. (1976). Observing as a function of stimulus difference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 154–162.Google Scholar
  12. Fields, L. (1978). Fading and errorless transfer in successive discriminations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 30, 123–128.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Fields, L., Adams, B. J., & Verhave, T. (1993). The effects of equivalence class structure on test performances. Psychological Record, 43, 697–712.Google Scholar
  14. Fields, L., & Verhave, T. (1987). The structure of equivalence classes. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 48, 317–332.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Guthrie, E. R. (1952). The psychology of learning (Rev. ed.). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  16. Hanson, H. M. (1959). Effects of discrimination training on stimulus generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 321–334.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hayes, S. C. (1991). A relational control theory of stimulus equivalence. In L. J. Hayes & P. N. Chase (Eds.), Dialogues on verbal behavior (pp. 19–40). Reno, NV: Context Press.Google Scholar
  18. Herrnstein, R. J., Loveland, D. H., & Cable, C. (1976). Natural concepts in pigeons. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 285–302.Google Scholar
  19. Holland, J. G. (1960). Teaching machines: An application of principles from the laboratory. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 3, 275–287.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Honig, W. K., Thomas, D. R., & Guttman, N. (1959). Differential effects of continuous extinction and discrimination training on the generalization gradient. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 145–152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. James, W. (1890). Principles of psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehardt, & Winston.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnson, D. F. (1970). Determiners of selective stimulus control in the pigeon. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 70, 298–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kamin, L. J. (1968). “Attention-like” processes in classical conditioning. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Miami symposium on the prediction of behavior, 1967: Aversive stimulation (pp. 9–31). Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press.Google Scholar
  24. Keller, F. S., & Schoenfeld, W. N. (1950). Principles of psychology: A systematic text in the science of behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lawrence, D. H. (1952). The transfer of a discrimination along a continuum. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 45, 511–516.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Lovaas, O. I., Berberich, J. P., Perloff, B. F., & Schaeffer, B. (1966). Acquisition of imitative speech by schizophrenic children. Science, 151, 705–707.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mackintosh, N. J. (1974). The psychology of animal learning. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  28. Mackintosh, N. J., & Reese, B. (1979). One-trial overshadowing. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 31, 519–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miles, C. G., & Jenkins, H. M. (1973). Overshadowing in operant conditioning as a function of discriminability. Learning and Motivation, 4, 11–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Miller, N. E., & Dollard, J. (1940). Social learning and imitation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Montessori, M. (1912). The Montessori method. New York: Frederick A. Stokes.Google Scholar
  32. Pavlov, I. P. (1960). Conditioned reflexes: An investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex (G. V. Anrep, Trans.). New York: Dover. (Original work published 1927)Google Scholar
  33. Pierrel, R., Sherman, J. G., Blue, S., & Hegge, F. W. (1970). Auditory discrimination: A three-variable analysis of intensity effects. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 13, 17–35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Rescorla, A. A., & Wagner, A. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and non-reinforcement. In A. H. Black & W. F. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical conditioning: Vol. 2. Current research and theory (pp. 64–99). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  35. Revusky, S. H. (1971). The role of interference in association over a delay. In W. K. Honig & P. H. R. James (Eds.), Animal memory (pp. 155–213). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schusterman, R. J., & Kastak, D. (1993). A California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is capable of forming equivalence relations. Psychological Record, 43, 823–839.Google Scholar
  37. Sidman, M. (1971). Reading and auditory-visual equivalences. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 14, 5–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Sidman, M. (1994). Equivalence relations and behavior: A research story. Boston: Authors Cooperative.Google Scholar
  39. Skinner, B. F. (1950). Are theories of learning necessary? Psychological Review, 57, 193–216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. Skinner, B. F. (1958). Teaching machines. Science, 128, 969–977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Skinner, B. F. (1969). Contingencies of reinforcement: A theoretical analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  43. Terrace, H. S. (1963). Errorless transfer of a discrimination across two continua. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6, 223–232.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Touchette, P. E. (1971). Transfer of stimulus control: Measuring the moment of transfer. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 15, 347–354.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Trabasso, T. (1963). Stimulus emphasis and all-or-none learning in concept identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 398–406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. von Saal, W., & Jenkins, H. M. (1970). Blocking the development of stimulus control. Learning and Motivation, 1, 52–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wagner, A. R., Logan, F. A., Haberlandt, K., & Price, T. (1968). Stimulus selection in animal discrimination learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76, 171–180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Watson, J. B. (1919). Psychology from the standpoint of a behaviorist. Philadelphia: Lippincott.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yarczower, M. (1971). Stimulus control during conditional discrimination. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 16, 89–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Yarczower, M., & Switalski, R. (1969). Stimulus control in the goldfish after massed extinction. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12, 565–570.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Zentall, T. R., & Urcuioli, P. J. (1993). Emergent relations in the formation of stimulus classes by pigeons. Psychological Record, 43, 795–810.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • James A. Dinsmoor
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations