A Model of Cause-Effect Relations in the Study of Behavior
A three-phase model useful in teaching the analysis of behavior is presented. The model employs a “black box” behavior inventory diagram (BID), with a single output arrow representing behavior and three input arrows representing stimulus field, reversible states, and conditioning history. The first BID describes the organism at Time 1, and the second describes it at Time 2. Separating the two inventory diagrams is a column for the description of the intervening procedure. The model is used as a one-page handout, and students fill in the corresponding empty areas on the sheet as they solve five types of application problems. Instructors can use the BID to shape successive approximations in the accurate use of behavior-analytic vocabulary, conceptual analysis, and applications of behavior-change strategies.
Key wordsmodel diagram causality paradigm notation procedure
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
- Brunswik, E. (1952). The conceptual framework of psychology. In International encyclopedia of unified science (Vol. 1, No. 10). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Hummel, J. H., Kaeck, D. J., & Bowes, R. L. (1994). Diagramming operant processes. The ABA Newsletter, 17 (2), 4–5.Google Scholar
- Keister, W., Ritchie, A. E., & Washburn, S. H. (1951). The design of switching circuits. New York: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
- Keller, F. S., & Schoenfeld, W. N. (1950). Principles of psychology: A systematic analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
- Malott, R. W, Whaley, D. L., & Malott, M. E. (1993). Elementary principles of behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Schoenfeld, W. N., Cole, B. K., Blaustein, J., Lachter, G. D., Martin, J. M., & Vickery, C. (1972). Stimulus schedules. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
- Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
- Tolman, E. C. (1951). A psychological model. In T. Parsons & E. A. Shils (Eds.), Toward a general theory of action (pp. 239–361). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Woodworth, R. S. (1918). Dynamic psychology. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar