Advertisement

The Behavior Analyst

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 175–187 | Cite as

Concurrent Behavior: Are the Interpretations Mutually Exclusive?

  • David O. Lyon
Article

Abstract

The experimental literature is replete with examples of behavior which occur concurrently with a schedule of reinforcement. These concurrent behaviors, often with similar topographies and occurring under like circumstances, may be interpreted as functionally autonomous, collateral, adjunctive, superstitious or mediating behavior. The degree to which the interaction of concurrent and schedule controlled behavior is used in the interpretation of behavior illustrated the importance of distinguishing among these interpretations by experimental procedure. The present paper reviews the characteristics of these interpretations, and discusses the experimental procedures necessary to distinguish among them. The paper concludes that the interpretations are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct behaviors, but that the distinction between any two of the interpretations requires more than one experimental procedure.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference Notes

  1. 1.
    Villareal, J. E. Schedule-induced pica. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Boston, April 1967.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jetter, W. E., Lindsley, O. R., & Wohlwill, F. J. The effects of x-irradiation on physical exercise and behavior in the dog. Related heinatological and pathological control studies. Unpublished report, Boston University, 1953.Google Scholar

References

  1. Allport, G. W. The functional autonomy of motives. American Journal of Psychology, 1937, 50, 141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anger, D. The dependence of interresponse times upon the relative reinforcement of different response times. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1956, 52, 145–161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Blackman, D. Conditioned suppression or facilitation as a function of the behavior baseline. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1968, 11, 53–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Bond, N. W., Blackman, D. E., & Scruton, P. Suppression of operant behavior and schedule-induced licking in rats. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1973, 20, 375–383.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Branch, M. N. Effects of chlorpromazine and d-amphetamine on observing responses during a fixed-interval schedule. Psychopharmacologia, 1975, 42, 87–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruner, A., & Revusky, S. H. Collateral behavior in humans. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1958, 1, 359–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cherek, D. R., Thompson, T., & Heistad, G. T. Responding maintained by the opportunity to attack during an interval food reinforcement schedule. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1973, 19, 113–123.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen, P. S., & Looney, J. Schedule-induced mirror responding in the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1973, 19, 395–408.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis, H., Hubbard, J., & Reberg, D. A methodological critique of research on “superstitious” behavior. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1973, 1, 447–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis, H., & Iriye, C. Effects of a brief novel stimulus during temporally spaced responding: Evidence for external inhibition? Conditioned Reflex, 1973, 8, 67–79.Google Scholar
  11. Davis, H., & Wheeler, L. The collateral pre-training of spaced responding. Psychonomic Science, 1967, 8, 281–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DeWeese, J. Schedule-induced biting under fixed-interval schedules of food or electric-shock presentation. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1977, 5, 419–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Falk, J. L. Production of polydipsia in normal rats by an intermittent food schedule. Science, 1961, 133, 195–196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Falk, J. L. Schedule-induced polydipsia as a function of fixed interval length. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1966, 9, 37–39. (a)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Falk, J. L. The motivational properties of schedule-induced polydipsia. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1966, 9, 19–25. (b)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Falk, J. L. Conditions producing psychogenic polydipsia in animals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1969, 157, 569–593.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Falk, J. L. The nature and determinants of adjunctive behavior. Physiology and Behavior, 1971, 6, 557–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Falk, J. S. The origin and functions of adjunctive Behavior. Animal Learning and Behavior, 1977, 5, 325–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fantino, E. Of mice and misers. Psychology Today, 1968, 2, 40–43.Google Scholar
  20. Fantino, E., Braun, J., & Vollero, W. E. A re-evaluation of persistent ear-scratching behavior in rats. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1968, 22, 252–258.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Fantino, E., & Cole, M. Sand-digging in mice: Functional autonomy? Psychonomic Science, 1968, 10, 29–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ferster, C. B., & Skinner, B. F. Schedules of reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Flory, R. Attack behavior as a function of minimum inter-food interval. Journal of the Experimental Anlaysis of Behavior, 1969, 12, 825–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gentry, W. D. Fixed-ratio schedule-induced aggression. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1968, 11, 813–817.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Glazer, H., & Singh, D. Role of collateral behavior in temporal discrimination performance and learning in rats. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971, 91, 78–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Herrnstein, R. J. Superstition: A corollary of the principles of operant conditioning. In W. K. Honig (Ed.), Operant behavior: Areas of research and application. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966.Google Scholar
  27. Hodos, W., Ross, G. S., & Brady, J. V. Complex response patterns during temporally spaced responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1962, 5, 473–479.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Holz, W. C., Azrin, N. H., & Ulrich, R. E. Punishment of temporally spaced responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1963, 6, 115–122.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Hutchinson, R. R., & Emley, G. S. Schedule-independent factors contributing to schedule induced phenomena. In R. M. Gilbert & J. D. Keehn (Eds.), Schedule effects, drugs, drinking, and aggression. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  30. Hymowitz, N. Effects of electric-shock delivery on schedule-induced water intake: Delay of shock, shock intensity, and body-weight loss. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1976, 26, 269–280.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Hymowitz, N. Effects of signalled and unsignalled electric-shock delivery on schedule-controlled and scheduled-induced behavior. The Psychological Record, 1977, 27, 715–731.Google Scholar
  32. Hymowitz, N., & Freed, E. X. Effects of response-dependent and independent electric shock on schedule-induced polydipsia. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1974, 22, 207–213.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Iversen, I. H. Interactions between reinforced responses and collateral responses. The Psychological Record, 1976, 26, 399–413.Google Scholar
  34. Kelleher, R. T. Chaining and conditioned reinforcement. In W. K. Honig (Ed.), Operant behavior: Areas of research and application. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966.Google Scholar
  35. Kelleher, R. J., Fry, W., & Cook, L. Interresponse time distribution as a function of differential reinforcement of temporally spaced responses. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1959, 2, 91–106.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Kelly, D. Two unlike patterns of random-ratio responding associated with different eating habits in rhesus monkeys. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1974, 22, 169–177.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Kramer, T. J., & Rilling, M. Differential reinforcement of low rates: A selective critique. Psychological Bulletin, 1970, 74, 225–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Laties, V. G., Weiss, B., Clark, R. L., & Reynolds. Overt “mediating” behavior during temporally spaced responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1965, 8, 106–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Laties, V. G., Weiss, B., & Weiss, A. B. Further observations on overt “mediating” behavior and the discrimination of time. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1969, 12, 43–57.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Levitsky, D., & Collier, G. Schedule-induced wheel running. Physiology and Behavior, 1968, 3, 571–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Looney, J. A., & Cohen, P. S. Pictorial target control of schedule induced attack in white carnaux pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1974, 21, 571–584.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Looney, J. A., & Cohen, P. S. Aggression induced by intermittent positive reinforcement. Biobehavioral Reviews, 1982, 6, 15–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lyon, D. O., & Turner, L. Adjunctive attack and displacement preening in the pigeon as a function of the ratio requirement for reinforcement. The Psychological Record, 1972, 22, 509–514.Google Scholar
  44. McKearney, J. W. Effects of methamphetamine and chlordiazepoxide on schedule-controlled and adjunctive licking in the rat. Psychopharmacologia, 1973, 30, 375–384.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Miller, J. S., & Gollub, L. B. Adjunctive and operant bolt pecking in the pigeon. The Psychological Record, 1974, 24, 203–208.Google Scholar
  46. Moerschbaeher, J. M., Thompson, D. M., & Thomas, J. R. Effects of methamphetamine and scopolamine on variability of response location. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1979, 32, 255–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Morse, W. H., & Skinner, B. F. A second type of superstition in the pigeon. American Journal of Psychology, 1957, 70, 308–311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Neuringer, A. J. Superstitious key pecking after three peck-produced reinforcements. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1970, 13, 127–134.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Olson, W. C. The measurement of nervous habits in normal children. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1929.Google Scholar
  50. Ramer, D. G., & Wilkie, D. M. Spaced food but not electric brain stimulation induces polydipsia and air licking. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1977, 27, 507–514.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Richardson, W., & Longhead, T. E. The effect of physical restraint on behavior under the differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1974, 21, 455–461.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Schwartz, B., & Williams, D. R. Discrete-trial spaced responding in the pigeon: The dependence of efficient performance on the availability of a stimulus for collateral pecking. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1971, 16, 155–160.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Segal, E. F. The development of water drinking on a dry-food free-reinforcement schedule. Psychonomic Science, 1965, 2, 29–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Segal, E. F., & Deadwyler, S. A. Amphetamine differentially affects temporally spaced bar pressing and collateral water drinking. Psychonomic Science, 1964, 1, 349–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Segal, E. F., & Holloway, S. M. Timing behavior in rats with water drinking as a mediator. Science, 1963, 140, 888–889.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Segal, E. F., & Oden, S. L. Effects of drinkometer current and of foot shock on psychogenic polydipsia. Psychonomic Science, 1969, 14, 13–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Segal-Rechtschaffen, E. Reinforcement of mediating behavior on a spaced-responding schedule. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1963, 6, 39–46.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Seligman, E., Ives, E., Ames, H., & Mineka, S. Conditioned drinking and its failure to extinguish: Avoidance, preparedness, or functional autonomy? Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1970, 71, 411–419.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Sidman, M. Tactics of scientific research: Evaluating experimental data in psychology. New York: Basic Books, 1960.Google Scholar
  60. Skinner, B. F. “Superstition” in the pigeon. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1948, 38, 168–172.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Staddon, J. E. R. Schedule-induced behaviors. In W. K. Honig & J. E. R. Staddon (Eds.), Handbook of operant behavior. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1977.Google Scholar
  62. Staddon, J. E. R., & Simmelhag, V. L. The “superstition” experiment: A reexamination of its implications for the principles of adaptive behavior. Psychological Review, 1970, 78, 3–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stein, H., & Landis, R. Mediating role of human collateral behavior during a spaced-responding schedule of reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973, 97, 28–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stein, N., & Flanagan, S. Human DRL performance, collateral behavior, and verbalization of the reinforcement contingency. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1974, 3, 27–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Thompson, D. M. Escape from SD associated with fixed-ratio reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1964, 7, 1–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Wallace, M., Singer, G., Wayner, M. J., & Cook, P. Adjunctive behavior in humans during game playing. Physiology and Behavior, 1975, 14, 651–654.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Wayner, M. J. Adjunctive behavior induced by different conditions of wheel running. Physiology and Behavior, 1975, 14, 507–510.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Weiner, H. Conditioning history and maladaptive human operant behavior. Psychological Reports, 1965, 17, 935–942.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Wilson, M. P., & Keller, F. S. On the selective reinforcement of spaced responses. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1953, 46, 190–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Zeiler, M. D. Superstitious behavior in children: An experimental analysis. In H. W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 7). New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  71. Zuriff, G. E. Collateral responding during differential reinforcement of low rates. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1969, 12, 971–976.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • David O. Lyon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWestern Michigan UniversityKalamazooUSA

Personalised recommendations