Most of the alloys in use today exhibit a wide variety of workability characteristics. Therefore, it is important to determine the amount of deformation a particular metal or alloy can withstand, and in addition, the effects of deformation upon the properties of the resulting shape. The forging behavior of eight distinct alloy types are reviewed. The currently available tests for determining forgeability—upset, tension, hot-impact, and hot-twist tests—are discussed with regard to their reliability. An additional test—the wedge test—is discussed in detail, and it is suggested that the test be used to obtain supplementary information on workability.
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Henning, H.J., Boulger, F.W. Tests for Hot Workability. JOM 15, 361–363 (1963). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03378245