Skip to main content

Ein Ansatz zur simultanen Messung von Kannibalisierungs-, substitutiven Konkurrenz- und Neukäufereffekten am Beispiel von line extensions

Summary

The position of line extensions as a product policy option remains unchallenged. Estimates of their share in new product launches in consumer goods markets range from 80 to 95%. A problem that will always be connected with the introduction of a line extension is cannibalization. But not only the extent of cannibalization is important. The sales of each product can be split into the three components, competitive substitution, cannibalization, and primary demand. The authors propose a simple method of decomposing line extension sales. The individual sales components can be measured with least squares techniques which is shown with an empirical study on line extensions in the market for pharmaceuticals.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Literaturverzeichnis

  • Aaker, David A. (1990), Brand Extension: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, in: Sloan Management Review, Vol. 31, S. 47–56.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aaker, David A. (1991), Managing Brand Equity: Capitalizing on the Value of a Brand Name.

  • Aaker, David A./ Keller, Kevin L. (1990), Consumer Evaluation of Brand Extensions, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54 (January), S. 27–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baltagi, Bahri (1995), Econometric Analysis of Panel Data.

  • Bass, Frank M. (1969), A New Product Growth Model for Consumer Durables, in: Management Science, Vol. 15, S. 215–227.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bass, Frank M./ Wittink, Dick R. (1975), Pooling Issues and Methods in Regression Analysis with Examples in Marketing Research, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 12, S. 414–425.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bauer, Hans H. (1989), Marktabgrenzung, Konzeption und Problematik von Ansätzen und Methoden zur Abgrenzung und Strukturierung von Märkten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von marketingtheoretischen Verfahren.

  • Bauer, Hans H./ Herrmann, Andreas/ Mengen, Andreas (1994), Eine Methode zur gewinnmaximalen Produktgestaltung auf der Basis des Conjoint Measurement, in: Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft, 63. Jg., S. 81–94.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bauer, Hans H./ Fischer, Marc (2000), Die empirische Typologisierung von Produktlebenszyklen und ihre Erklärung durch die Markteintrittsreihenfolge, in: Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft, 70. Jg., S. 937–958.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bauer, Hans H./ Fischer, Marc (2000), Die simultane Messung von Kannibalisierungs-, substitutiven Konkurrenz- und Neukäuferanteilen am Absatz von line extensions auf der Basis aggregierter Daten, Arbeitspapier W37 des Instituts für Marktorientierte Unternehmensführung, Universität Mannheim.

  • Bottomley, Peter A./ Doyle, John R. (1996), The Formation of Attitudes Towards Brand Extensions: Testing and Generalizing Aaker and Keller’s Model, in: International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 13, S. 365–377.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boush, Deborah M./ Loken, Barbara (1991), A Process-tracing Study of Brand Extension Evaluation, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 28, S. 16–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brockhoff, Klaus (1967), A Test for the Product Life Cycle, in: Econometrica, Vol. 35, S. 472–484.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brockhoff, Klaus (1997), Produktpolitik, 4. A.

  • Bultez, Alain/ Gijsbrechts, Els/ Naert, Philipp/ Vande Abeele, Piet (1989), Asymmetric Cannibalism in Retail Assortments, in: Journal of Retailing, Vol. 65, S. 153–192.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bultez, Alain/ Gijsbrechts, Els/ Naert, Philipp (1995), A Theorem on the Optimal Margin Mix, in: Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft, Ergänzungsheft 4/95, S. 151–174.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carpenter, Gregory S./ Cooper, Lee G./ Hanssens, Dominique M./ Midgley, David F. (1988), Modeling Asymmetric Competition, in: Marketing Science, Vol. 7, S. 393–412.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carpenter, Gregory S./ Hanssens, Dominique M. (1994), Market Expansion, Cannibalization and International Airline Pricing, in: International Journal of Forecasting, Vol. 10, S. 313–326.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chow, Gary (1960), Tests of Equality Between Sets of Coefficients in Two Linear Regressions, in: Econometrica, Vol. 28, S. 591–605.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cooper, L. G./Nakanishi, M. (1988), Market Share Analysis.

  • Corstjens, Marcel L./ Gautschi, David A. (1983), Formal Choice Models in Marketing, in: Marketing Science, Vol. 2, S. 19–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Devinney, Timothy M./ Stewart, Daniel W. (1988), Rethinking the Product Portfolio: A Generalized Investment Model, in: Management Science, Vol. 34, S. 1080–1095.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Green, Paul A./ Krieger, Abba M. (1987), A Consumer-Based Approach to Designing Product Line Extensions, in: Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 4, S. 21–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greene, William H. (1997), Econometric Analysis, 3rd ed.

  • Hanssens, Dominique M./Parsons, Leonard/Schultz, Randall (1992), Market Response Models: Econometric and Time Series Analysis.

  • Hsiao, Cheng (1975): Some Estimation Methods for a Random Coefficient Model, in: Econometrica, Vol. 43, S. 305–325.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hsiao, Cheng (1986), Analysis of Panel Data.

  • Kalyanaram, Gurumurthy/ Urban, Glen L. (1992), Dynamic Effects of the Order of Entry on Market Share, Trial Penetration, and Repeat Purchases for Frequently Purchased Consumer Goods, in: Marketing Science, Vol. 11, S. 235–250.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keller, Kevin L./ Aaker, David A. (1992), The Effects of Sequential Introduction of Brand Extensions, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 29, S. 35–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kerin, Roger A./Harvey, Miachel G./Rothe, James T. (1978), Cannibalism and New Product Development, in: Business Horizons (October), S. 25–31.

  • Kerkre, Sunder/ Srinivasan, Kannan (1990), Broader Product Line: A Necessity to Achieve Success?, in: Management Science, Vol. 36, S. 1216–1231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kim, Byong-Do/ Sullivan, Mary W. (1998), The Effect of Parent Brand Experience on Line Extension Trial and Repeat Purchase, in: Marketing Letters, Vol. 9, S. 181–193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kluyver de, Cornelius A. (1977), Innovation and Industrial Product Life Cycles, in: California Management Review, Vol. 20, S. 21–33.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lane, Vicki/ Jacobson, Robert (1995), Stock Market Reactions to Brand Extension Announcements: The Effects of Brand Attitude and Familiarity, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 59 (January), S. 63–77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lilien, Gary L./Kotler, Phillip/Moorthy, K. Sridhar (1992), Marketing Models.

  • Loken, Barbara/ Roedder John, Deborah (1993), Diluting Brand Beliefs: When Do Brand Extensions Have a Negative Impact, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57 (July), S. 71–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maddala, G. S. (1971), The Use of Variance Components Models in Pooling Cross Section and Time Series Data, in: Econometrica 39, S. 341–358.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mahajan, Vijay/ Muller, Eitan (1996), Timing, Diffusion, and Substitution of Successive Generations of Technological Innovations: The IBM Mainframe Case, in: Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 51, S. 109–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mahajan, Vijay/ Muller, Eitan/ Bass, Frank M. (1990), New Product Diffusion Models in Marketing: A Review and Directions for Research, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54 (January), S. 1–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mahajan, Vijay/ Sharma, Subharsh/ Buzzell, Robert D. (1993), Assessing the Impact of Competitive Entry on Market Expansion and Incumbent Sales, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57 (July), S. 39–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mardia, Kiro V. (1971), The Effect of Nonnormality on Some Multivariate Tests and Robustness to Nonnormality in the Linear Model, in: Biometrika, Vol. 58, S. 105–121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mason, Cristoph H./ Milne, George R. (1994), An Approach for Identifying Cannibalization within Product Line Extensions and Multi-Brand Strategies, in: Journal of Business Research, Vol. 31, S. 163–170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Milne, George R./ Mason, Charlotte H. (1990), An Ecological Niche Theory Apporach to the Measurement of Brand Competition, in: Marketing Letters, Vol. 1, S. 267–281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moorthy, K. Sridhar/ Png, I. P. L. (1992), Market Segmentation, Cannibalization, and the Timing of Product Introductions, in: Management Science, Vol. 38, S. 345–359.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Norton, John A./ Bass, F. M. (1987), A Diffusion Theory Model of Adoption and Substitution for Successive Generations of High-Technology Products, in: Management Science, Vol. 33, S. 1069–1086.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Norton, John A./ Bass, F. M. (1992), Evolution of Technological Generations: The Law of Capture, in: Sloan Management Review, Vol. 33, S. 66–77.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rangaswamy, A./ Burke, R. R./ Oliva, T. A. (1993), Brand Equity and the Extendibility of Brand Names, in: International Journal of Research in Marketing, 10, S. 61–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reddy, Srinivas K./ Holak, Susan L./ Bhat, Subodh (1994), To Extend or Not to Extend: Success Determinants of Line Extensions, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 31, S. 243–262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rink, David A./ Swan, J. E. (1979), Product Life Cylce Research: A Literature Review, in: Journal of Business Research, Vol. 78, S. 219–242.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roedder John, Deborah/ Loken, Barbara/ Joiner, C. (1998), The Negative Impact of Extensions: Can Flagship Products be Diluted?, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 62 (January), S. 19–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sattler, Henrik (1997), Monetäre Bewertung von Markenstrategien für neue Produkte.

  • Saunders, John (1987), The Specification of Aggregate Marketing Models, in: European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 21, H. 2, S. 1–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Silk, Alvin J./ Urban, Glen L. (1978), Pre-test market Evaluation of New Packaged Goods: A Model and Measurement Methodology, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 15, S. 171–191.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Simon, Hermann (1985), Goodwill und Marketingstrategie.

  • Smith, Daniel C./ Park, C. Whan (1992), The Effects of Brand Extensions on Market Share and Advertising Efficiency, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 29, S. 296–313.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan, Mary W. (1992), Brand Extensions: When to Use Them, in: Management Science, Vol. 38, S. 793–806.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson, M. (1982), Some Results on the Statistical Properties of an Inequality Constrained Least Squares Estimator in a Linear Model with Two Regressors, in: Journal of Econometrics, Vol. 19, S. 215–231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Urban, Glen L. (1969), A Mathematical Modeling Approach to Product Line Decisions, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 6, S. 40–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wernerfelt, Birger (1988), Umbrella branding as a signal of new product quality: an example of signalling by posting a bond, in: RAND Journal of Economics, Vol. 19, S. 458–466.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, Larry O./ Norton, John A. (1989), Optimal Entry Timing for a Product Line Extension, in: Marketing Science, Vol. 8, S. 1–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wind, Yoram J. (1982), Product Policy: Concepts, Methods, and Strategy.

  • Wittink, Dick R./ Addona, Michael J./ Hawkes, William J./ Porter, John C. (1988), The Estimation, Validation, and Use of Promotional Effects Based on Scanner Data, Working paper, Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

Wir danken William Greene, Carsten Hahn, Scott Thompson sowie zwei anonymen Gutachtern für die wertvollen Hinweise.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bauer, H.H., Fischer, M. Ein Ansatz zur simultanen Messung von Kannibalisierungs-, substitutiven Konkurrenz- und Neukäufereffekten am Beispiel von line extensions. Schmalenbachs Z betriebswirtsch Forsch 53, 455–477 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03372655

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03372655

JEL-Classification

  • C23
  • C51
  • C52
  • H31