Cereal cyst nematodes (CCN) are important plant-parasitic nematodes of wheat and barley, and exist in most of the cereal growing regions of the world. As there is limited information on the nature and distribution of CCN species in Syria, a survey was conducted in north-eastern Syria to assess the distribution of CCN in the main wheat and barley growing areas. In the summer of 2009, a total of 167 composite soil samples were collected from 167 wheat and barley fields. Cysts were extracted from soil using the Fenwick can technique, then quantified and identified up to the species level by using both morphological and molecular methods. The study revealed that 62% of the fields were infested with the three Heterodera species: H. avenae, H. filipjevi and H. latipons. However, the most prevalent species was H. latipons, which was present in 76% of the infested samples, while it occurred alone in 67% of those samples. Heterodera avenae was detected singly in 20% of the samples, while 11% consisted of mixed populations with other species. Heterodera filipjevi was never detected alone; it was found mixed with H. avenae and/or H. latipons in 9% of the samples. The high number of extracted cysts (up to 116 cysts × 200 g−1 of soil) is most likely related to the monoculture practiced in that region and the fact that growers are unaware of the existence of resistant varieties.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Abidou H, El-Ahmed A, Nicol JM, Bolat N, Rivoal R & Yahyaoui A, 2005. Occurrence and distribution of species of the Heterodera avenae group in Syria and Turkey. Nematol Medit 33, 195–201.
Anonymous, 2010. Annual Agricultural Statistical Report. Directorate of Planning and Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. Department of Agricultural Economics. Syrian Central Office of Statistics.
Bekal S, Jahier J & Rivoal R, 1998. Host responses of different Triticeae to species of the cereal cyst nematode complex in relation to breeding resistant durum wheat. Fundam Appl Nematol 21, 359–370.
Brown RH, 1985. The selection of management strategies for controlling nematodes in cereals. Agric Ecosyst Environ 12, 371–388.
Dababat AA, Imren M, Erginbas-Orakci G, Ashrafi S, Yavuzaslanoglu E, Toktay H, Pariyar SR, Elekcioglu HI, Morgounov AI & Mekete T, 2014. The importance and management strategies of cereal cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp., in Turkey. Euphytica 202, 173–188.
Dixon J, Braun JH & Crouch JH, 2009. Overview: Transitioning wheat research to serve the future needs of the developing countries. In: Dixon J, Braun JH, Kosina P, Crouch JH, (Eds.), Wheat Facts and Futures 2009. Mexico, D.F., CIMMYT.
Fenwick DW, 1940. Methods for the recovery and counting of cysts of Heterodera schachtii from soil. J Helminthol 18, 155–172.
Ferris VR, Ferris JM & Faghihi J, 1993. Variation in spacer ribosomal DNA in some cyst-forming species of plant parasitic nematodes. Fundam Appl Nematol 16, 177–184.
Hall TA, 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41, 95–98.
Handoo ZA, 2002. A key and compendium to species of the Heterodera avenae group (Nematode: Heteroderidae). J Nematol 34, 250–262.
Hassan GA, 2008. Ecological and biological study of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) on wheat in Al-Hassakah Governorate. M.Sc. thesis. Damascus University, Syria.
Hassan GA, Al-Assas K & Jamal M, 2010. Damage potential and reproduction of Heterodera avenae on wheat under Syrian field conditions. Nematol Medit 38, 73–78.
Holterman M, van der Wurff A, van den Elsen S, van Megen H, Bongers T, Holovachov O, Bakker J & Helder J, 2006. Phylum-wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution toward crown clades. Mol Biol Evol 23, 1792–1800.
Ibrahim AAM, Al Hazmi AS, Al Yahya FA & Alderfasi AA, 1999. Damage potential and reproduction of Heterodera avenae on wheat and barley under Saudi field conditions. Nematology 1, 625–630.
Imren M, Waeyenberge L, Viaene N, Toktay H, Dababat A & Elekcioǧlu H, 2012. Molecular characterization of cereal cyst nematodes from South Anatolian Region in Turkey using ITS-rDNA sequences. Turk J Entomol 4, 491–499.
Mokabli A, Valette S, Gauthier JP & Rivoal R, 2002. Variation in virulence of cereal cyst nematode populations from North Africa and Asia. Nematology 4, 521–525.
Nicol JM & Rivoal R, 2008. Global knowledge and its application for the integrated control and management of nematodes on wheat. In: Ciancio A and Mukerji KG (Eds). Integrated management and biocontrol of vegetable and grain crops nematodes, Vol. 2. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer, 243–287.
Nicol JM, Rivoal R, Taylor S & Zaharieva M, 2004. Global importance of cyst (Heterodera spp.) and lesion nematode (Pratylenchus spp.) on cereals: distribution, yield loss, use of host resistance and integration of molecular tools. Nematology Monographs and Perspectives 2, 1–19.
Öztürk G, Yildirim AF & Enneli S, 1998. Distribution and frequency of cereal cyst nematodes (H. avenae Wollenweber) in Konya wheat growing area. Proceedings of Turkey Phytopatology Congress, Ankara, Turkey, 260–264.
Peng D, Nicol JM, Zhang D, Chen S, Waeyenberge L & Moens M, 2007. Occurrence, distribution and research situation of cereal cyst nematode in China. [Abstract]. Proc. Int. Plant Protection Conf., 16th, Glasgow, Scotland, UK. 15–18 Oct. 2007. Br. Crop Prod. Counc., Alton, Hampshire, UK. 350–351.
Rivoal R, Bekal S, Valette S, Gauthier JP, Bel Hadj Fradj M, Mokabli, A, Jahier J, Nicol JM & Yahyaoui A, 2001. Variation in reproductive capacity and virulence of different genotypes and resistance genes of Triticeae, in the cereal cyst nematode complex. Nematology 3, 581–592.
Rivoal R, Valette S, Bekal S, Gauthier JB & Yahyaoui A, 2003. Genetic and phenotypic diversity in the graminaceous cyst nematode complex, inferred from PCR-RFLP of ribosomal DNA and morphometric analysis. Eur J Plant Pathol 109, 227–241.
Sahin E, Nicol JM, Elekçioǧlu IH, Yorgancilar O, Yildirim AF, Tülek A, Hekimhan H, Yorgancilar A, Kilinç AT, Bolat N & Erginbaç-Orakci G, 2009. Frequency and diversity of cereal Nematodes on the central Anatolian Plateau of Turkey. Proceedings of the First Workshop of the International Cereal Cyst Nematode Initiative, 21–23 October 2009 (pp. 100–105). Antalya, Turkey, CIMMYT.
Schölz U, 2001. Biology, pathogenicity and control of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera latipons Franklin on wheat and barley under semiarid conditions, and interactions with common root rot Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker [teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus (Ito et Kurib.) Drechs. ex Dastur.]. Ph.D. thesis. Bonn University, Bonn, Germany.
Smiley RW, Ingham RE, Uddin W & Cook GH, 1994. Crop sequences for winter wheat in soil infested with cereal cyst nematode and fungal pathogens. Plant Dis 78, 1142–1149.
Smiley RW & Nicol JM, 2009. Nematodes which challenge global wheat production. In Wheat Science and Trade. Carver, BF (Ed.). Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, IA. 171–187.
Smiley RW, Whittaker RG, Gourlie JA, Easley SA & Ingham RE, 2005. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with reduced wheat yield in Oregon: Heterodera avenae. J Nematol 37, 297–307.
Taheri A, Hollamby GJ, Vanstone A & Neate SM, 1994. Interaction between root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus neglectus (Rensch 1924) Chitwood and Oteifa 1952, and root rotting fungi of wheat. NZ J Crop Hortic Sci 22, 181–185.
Toumi F, Waeyenberge L, Viaene N, Dababat A, Nicol JM, Ogbonnaya F & Moens M, 2013a. Development of a species-specific PCR to detect the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera latipons. Nematology 15, 709–717.
Toumi F, Waeyenberge L, Viaene N, Dababat A, Nicol JM, Ogbonnaya F & Moens M, 2013b. Development of two species-specific primer sets to detect the cereal cyst nematodes Heterodera avenae and Heterodera filipjevi. Eur J Plant Pathol 136, 613–624.
Yavuzaslanoglu E, Elekçioǧlu H, Nicol, JM, Yorgancilar O, Hodson D, Yildirim FA, Yorgancilar A & Bolat B, 2012. Distribution, frequency and occurrence of cereal nematodes on the Central Anatolian Plateau in Turkey and their relationship with soil physicochemical properties. Nematology, 14, 839–854.
About this article
Cite this article
Toumi, F., Hassan, G., Waeyenberge, L. et al. Distribution of the Cereal Cyst Nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Wheat and Barley Fields in North-Eastern Regions of Syria. J Plant Dis Prot 122, 255–263 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03356561
- Heterodera avenae
- H. filipjevi. H. latipons