Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection

, Volume 122, Issue 5–6, pp 200–206 | Cite as

History and Data Analyses of ‘Cutting Out’ Method for Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Disease (CSSVD) Control in Ghana

  • George A Ameyaw
  • Henry K Dzahini-Obiatey
  • Owusu Domfeh
  • Francis K Oppong
  • Kwaku Abaka-Ewusie


Cocoa swollen shoot virus disease (CSSVD) has for over seven decades been managed in Ghana through the ‘cutting out method’. This procedure involves complete removal of infected cocoa trees together with neighbouring apparently healthy cocoa trees from affected farms and replanting with improved cocoa varieties tolerant to the virus. This method of control started in 1946 with the objective to eradicate and also limit the spread of the virus to only severely affected farms in Ghana. Farmers whose farms are ‘cut out’ of infected cocoa trees are assisted to regenerate their farms with improved cocoa varieties tolerant to the virus. In practice however, this approach have several times been opposed by farmers leading to its intermittent suspension. Farmers rather prefer to allow CSSV infected trees to remain on their farms to produce few pods as source of income than to allow them to be removed. Delayed funding of the programme coupled with or without payment of monetary compensation to farmers often results in time lags between outbreak identification and farmers willingness to allow infected trees to be removed. This among other challenges of the programme have accounted for the increased prevalence and the continuous spread of the disease in Ghana. This paper provides empirical analysis of cocoa tree removals from 1945/46 to 2013/2014 when the programme has been continuously implemented across the cocoa regions in Ghana and discusses some of the key challenges on the implementation of the ‘cutting out’ method and offers some perspectives for its use to manage the spread of the disease.

Key words

Cacao swollen shoot virus Ghana cocoa board Theobroma cacao 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ameyaw GA, 2006. The ‘cutting out’ procedure as a control strategy against Cacao swollen shoots virus (CSSV) disease in Ghana. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Reading, U.K., 66p.Google Scholar
  2. Ameyaw GA, Dzahini-Obiatey HK & Domfeh O, 2014. Perspectives on cocoa swollen shoot virus disease (CSSVD) management in Ghana. Crop Prot 65, 64–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ameyaw GA, Wetten A, Dzahini-Obiatey H, Allainguillaume J & Domfeh O, 2013. Investigations on Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) pollen transmission through cross pollination. Plant Pathol 62, 421–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ampofo ST, 1989. Swollen shoot control: review of past and present work. Proceedings of Cocoa Swollen Shoot Workshop, 25–26 July, 1989. 4–12.Google Scholar
  5. Ampofo ST, 1997. The current cocoa swollen shoot virus disease situation in Ghana. In: Proceedings of the First International Cocoa Pests and Diseases Seminar, 6–10 November 1995, Accra, Ghana. 175–178 (Eds. Ollennu, LAA, Owusu, GK, Padi, B).Google Scholar
  6. Beeton WH, 1948. Concluding report of the Committee of Enquiry to Review Legislation for the treatment of the Swollen Shoot Disease of Cocoa and to provide for payment of compensation in respect of cocoa trees destroyed by reason of the prescribed treatment. Government Printing Department, Accra, Gold Goast, March, 1948.Google Scholar
  7. Berkeley GH, Carter W & Van Slogteren EL, 1948. Report on the commission of enquiry into swollen shoot disease of cacao in the Gold coast. Colonial 256, H.M.S.O, 1–10.Google Scholar
  8. Brunt AA & Kenten RH, 1971. Viruses infecting cacao. Rev Plant Pathol 50, 591–602.Google Scholar
  9. Cornwell PB, 1960. Movements of the vectors of virus diseases of cacao in Ghana. II. Wind movement and aerial dispersal.Bull Entomol Res 51, 175–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dade HA, 1937. Swollen shoot and die back of cacao. GoldCoast Sessional Paper, No. 5.Google Scholar
  11. Domfeh O, Dzahini-Obiatey HK, Ameyaw GA, Abaka-Ewusie K & G. Opoku, 2011. Cocoa swollen shoot disease situation in Ghana: A review of current trends. Afr J Agric Res 6, 5033–5039.Google Scholar
  12. Dzahini-Obiatey H, Ameyaw GA & Ollennu LA, 2006. Control of cocoa swollen shoot disease by eradicating infected trees in Ghana: A survey of treated and replanted areas. Crop Prot 25, 647–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dzahini-Obiatey H, Domfeh O & Amoah FM, 2010. Over seventy years of a viral disease of cocoa in Ghana: From researchers’ perspective. Afr J Agric Res 5, 476–485.Google Scholar
  14. Fofie A, Owusu GK, Nsiah FE & Ampofo ST, 2003. Control of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in cordon sanitaire, separating areas of heavy infection in Ghana from the rest of the country. Proceedings of the 4th International Cocoa Pests and Diseases Seminar, 19–25th October 2003 Accra, Ghana, 12. (Eds. Ollennu, LAA, Ackonnor, JB, Akrofi, AY).Google Scholar
  15. Ghana Cocoa Board, 2004. Ghana Cocoa Board Handbook. 8th edition, COCOBOD, Accra, Ghana, pp 62.Google Scholar
  16. Lot H, Djiekpor E & Jacquuemond M, 1991. Characterization of the genome of cacao swollen shoot virus. J Gen Virol 72, 1735–1739.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Muller E, 2008. Cacao swollen shoot virus. In: Rao GP, Paul Khurana SM, Lenardon SL, (eds.): Characterization, Diagnosis and Management of Plant Viruses Industrial Crops. Stadium Press LLC, Houston, TX, USA. 423–44.Google Scholar
  18. Ollennu LAA, Owusu GK & Thresh JM, 1989. The control of cocoa swollen shoot disease in Ghana. Cocoa Growers’ Bulletin 42, 25–35.Google Scholar
  19. Owusu GK, 1983. The cocoa swollen shoot virus problem in Ghana. In: RT Plumb & JM Thresh (Eds.) Plant Virus Epidemiology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. 73–83.Google Scholar
  20. Posnette AF, 1940. Transmission of ‘swollen shoot’ disease of cacao. Trop Agric Trin 17, 98.Google Scholar
  21. Posnette AF, 1943. Swollen shoot in Trinidad. Trop Agric Trin 21, 105.Google Scholar
  22. Posnette AF, 1947. Viruses of cocoa in West Africa: 1. Cocoa viruses 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D. Ann Appl Biol 34, 388–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Posnette AF & Strickland AH, 1948. Virus diseases of cocoa in West Africa. Technique of insect transmission. Ann Appl Biol 35, 53–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Posnette AF & Todd J McA, 1951. Virus diseases of cacao in West Africa VIII. The search for virus-resistant cacao. Ann Appl Biol 38, 785–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Posnette AF, Robertson NF & Todd JM, 1950. Virus diseases of cocoa in West Africa. V. Alternative host plants. Ann Appl Biol 37, 229–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Quartey-Papafio E, 1961. Notes on the progress of swollen shoot disease control in Ghana. In: Proceedings of Cocoa Conference 1961: 176–178. London: Cocoa, Chocolate and Confectionery Alliance.Google Scholar
  27. Roivainen O, 1976. Transmission of cocoa viruses by mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). J Sci Agric Soc Finland 48, 433–53.Google Scholar
  28. Ross SD & Broatch JD, 1951. A review of the swollen shoot control campaign in the Gold Coast. Report of the 1951 Cocoa Conference. Chocolate and Confectionary Alliance, London, 92–97.Google Scholar
  29. Sagermann W, Lesemann D-E, Paul HL, Adomako D & Owusu GK, 1985. Detection and comparison of some Ghanaian isolates of cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoelectron microscopy (EM) using an antiserum to CSSV strain 1A. Phytopathol Z 114, 78–89.Google Scholar
  30. Steven WF, 1936. A new disease of in the Gold Coast. Trop Agric Trin 14, 84.Google Scholar
  31. Strickland AH, 1950. The dispersal of Pseudococcidae (Hemiptera-Homoptera) by air currents in the Gold Coast.Proc R Entomol Soc A 25, 1–9.Google Scholar
  32. Thresh JM, 1958. Control of cacao swollen shoots disease. A review of the present situation. Technical Bulletin No. 4. West African Cocoa Research Institute.Google Scholar
  33. Thresh JM & Owusu GK, 1986. The control of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Ghana: an evaluation of eradication procedure. Crop Prot 5, 41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Thresh JM, Owusu GK & Ollennu LAA, 1988. Cocoa swollen shoot virus: an archetypal crowd disease. J Plant Dis Protect 95, 428–446.Google Scholar
  35. Thresh JM & Lister RM, 1960. Coppicing experiments on the spread and control of cacao swollen shoot disease in Nigeria. Ann Appl Biol 48, 65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Van der Plank JE, 1948. The relation between the size of field and the spread of plant disease into them: Part I Crowd diseases. Emp J Exptl Agric 16, 134–142.Google Scholar
  37. Walker RE, 1950. Disease control and rehabilitation in the special area. Report of the 1950 Cocoa Conference, Chocolate and Confectionary Alliance, London, 8–11.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutsche Phythomedizinische Gesellschaft 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • George A Ameyaw
    • 1
  • Henry K Dzahini-Obiatey
    • 1
  • Owusu Domfeh
    • 1
  • Francis K Oppong
    • 2
  • Kwaku Abaka-Ewusie
    • 2
  1. 1.Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG)New Akim-Tafo, E/RGhana
  2. 2.Former Executive Directors of Cocoa Health and Extension Division (CHED)AccraGhana

Personalised recommendations