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Rice false smut (Ustilaginoidea virens) in Egypt

Falscher Reisbrand (Ustilaginoidea virens) in Ägypten

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Abstract

Rice false smut (RFS) caused by Ustilaginoidea virens (Cke.) Tak. (Teleomorph: Claviceps oryzae sativae Hashioka) is a sporadic disease where rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated. Rfs is a new disease in Egypt and appeared for the first time in the Nile Delta in 1997. This paper is the first record of Rfs in Egypt. Rfs was surveyed in most rice production areas of Egypt during two seasons. Disease incidence and number of spore balls (infected grains) were significantly higher in 2000 than in 2001. Disease usually affected a few grains (1–20) and might occupy any part of the panicle. The Rfs fungus also attacks Echinochloa crus-galli, a common rice weed, as well as Imperata cylindrica, a common weed on irrigation canals in Egypt. The causal agent of Rfs was isolated and identified on rice flour yeast extract dextrose agar (Ryda) and on Pda media. Yield losses caused by Rfs ranged from 1.01 to 10.91 %. Disease also reduced the chaff percentage and 1000-grain weight. Rice cv. ‘Giza 171’ was the most susceptible one, while cv. ‘Sakha 102’ was highly resistant. The amount of N fertilization was correlated with high disease. Early transplanting (at beginning of June), cultivation in clay soil and spraying rice plants with Topsin-M or copper-oxychloride (each 2.5 g/l) at the beginning of booting stage significantly reduced the disease.

Further studies are needed to investigate the viability of the fungal spores and sclerotia during winter, variation between fungal isolates, ability to produce mycotoxins and control of Rfs disease using non-chemical methods.

Zusammenfassung

Der durch Ustilaginoidea virens (Cke.) Tak. (Teleomorphe: Claviceps oryzae sativae Hashioka) verursachte Falsche Reisbrand (Rfs) ist eine sporadisch auftretende Krankheit, wo Reis (Oryza sativa L.) angebaut wird. Rfs ist eine neue Krankheit in Ägypten und wurde zum ersten Mal 1997 im Nildelta beobachtet. Dies ist der erste Bericht über RFS in Ägypten. Die Krankheit wurde zwei Vegetationsperioden lang in den meisten Reisanbaugebieten Agyptens erfasst. Der Krankheitsbefall und die Zahl der Sporenballen (infizierte Körner) waren im Jahr 2000 signifikant höher als 2001. Die Krankheit befällt im Allgemeinen einige Körner (1–20) und kann an allen Teilen der Rispe auftreten. Der Pilz befallt auch Echinocloa crus-galli, ein verbreitetes Unkraut in Reis sowie Imperata cylindrica, ein Unkraut an den Bewässerungskanälen. Der Erreger wurde isoliert und auf Reismehl-Hefeextrakt-Dextrose-Agar Ryda) und Pda identifiziert. Die durch die Krankheit verursachten Ertragsausfalle variierten von 1,01 bis 10,91 %. Die Krankheit reduzierte auch den Prozentsatz an Reisspreu und das 1000-Korn-Gewicht. Die Reissorte ‘Giza 171’ erwies sich als am anfälligsten, wahrend die Sorte ‘Sakha 102’ hoch resistent war. Die Stickstoffdungung war korreliert mit der Befallsstarke. Fruhes Auspflanzen (Anfang Juni), Anbau auf Lehmböden und Behandlung der Reispflanzen mit Topsin-M oder Kupferoxychlorid (jeweils 2,5 g/l) zu Beginn des Bestockens reduzierte signifikant den Befall.

Weitere Untersuchungen sind erforderlich, um die Lebensfähigkeit der Pilzsporen und der Sklerotien während des Winters herauszufinden sowie die Variabilitat der Isolate, die Fähigkeit zur Mykotoxinbildung und die Bekämpfung der Krankheit mit nicht chemischen Mitteln zu erkunden.

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Correspondence to Atia M. M. M.

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M. M. M, A. Rice false smut (Ustilaginoidea virens) in Egypt. J Plant Dis Prot 111, 71–82 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03356134

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