Zum Syndrom des plötzlichen Kindstodes (SIDS) — aktueller Stand der Wissenschaft

  • Evelyn Krieger
  • Stefanie Uibel
  • Daniel Müller
  • David Quarcoo
  • Doris Klingelhöfer
  • Simona Zitnik
  • David A. Groneberg
Übersichtsarbeit | Review


Für das Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), auf deutsch plötzlicher Kindstod, spielen umweltmedizinische Einflüsse eine bedeutende Rolle. So stehen unter der aktuellen Hypothese einer multifaktoriellen Ursachenkette verschiedene Faktoren im Verdacht, als Mitauslöser in Betracht zu kommen. Der plötzliche Kindstod betrifft überwiegend Kinder zwischen dem zweiten und sechsten Lebensmonat, womit das SIDS trotz weitreichender Aufklärungskampagnen und vermehrter Erforschung der Risikofaktoren als häufigste Todesursache bei Säuglingen in Industrienationen gilt. Das SIDS ist noch heute für den Tod von einem pro 2.000 Lebendgeborenen in Deutschland verantwortlich.

Der vorliegende Übersichtsartikel soll die Relevanz des SIDS für das Gesundheitssystem aufzeigen und die bestehende internationale Bedeutung für die Umweltmedizin erläuternd darlegen.


Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS Plötzlicher Kindstod crib death cot death 

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) — current scientific knowledge


For the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), in German “plötzlicher Kindstod”, many important factors of environmental medicine come into play. Diverse factors are suspected of being responsible triggers of this syndrome, so that it is assumed to be of multifactorial occurrence. SIDS affects mostly infants between the age of two and six months and is therefore in spite of extensive awareness raising campaigns and increased research on risk factors still the most common cause of death for infants in developed nations. SIDS is responsible for approximately 1 death per 2,000 live-births in Germany nowadays.

The current review article shall disclose the relevance of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome on the health care system and explain the existing international importance for environmental medicine.

Key words

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS cot death crib death 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, R. T. and D. Radisch (2005). “Sudden Infant Death Syndrome risk factors with regards to sleep position, sleep surface, and co-sleeping.” Journal of Forensic Sciences 50(1): 147–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alm, B., H. Lagercrantz, et al. (2006). “Stop SIDS — sleeping solitary supine, sucking soother, stopping smoking substitutes.” Acta Paediatrica 95(3): 260–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alm, B., P. Mollborg, et al. (2006). “SIDS risk factors and factors associated with prone sleeping in Sweden.” ArchDisChild 91(11): 915–919.Google Scholar
  4. Alm, B., G. Wennergren, et al. (2002). “Breast feeding and the sudden infant death syndrome in Scandinavia, 1992–95.” Arch Dis Child 86(6): 400–402.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergman, A. B. and J. B. Beckwith (1965). “Sudden Death in Infancy.” New England Journal of Medicine 273(22): 1226–&.Google Scholar
  6. Blair, P. S., P. J. Fleming, et al. (1996). “Smoking and the sudden infant death syndrome: Results from 1993–5 case-control study for confidential inquiry into stillbirths and deaths in infancy.” British Medical Journal 313(7051): 195–198.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blair, P. S., M. W. Platt, et al. (2006). “Sudden infant death syndrome and sleeping position in pre-term and low birth weight infants: an opportunity for targeted intervention.” Arch Dis Child 91(2): 101–106.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Böhnel, H. (2001). “Is there a link between infant botulism and sudden infant death? Bacteriological results obtained in Central Germany.” Eur J Pediatr 160: 623–628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Colditz, P. B., G J. Joy, et al. (2002). “Rebreathing potential of infant mattresses and bedcovers.” Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 38(2): 192–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Corwin, M. (2012). “National Sudden and Unexpected Infant/Child Death and Pregnancy Loss Resource Center.” from http://wwwsidsc Google Scholar
  11. National-Institute-of-Child-Health-and-Human-Developement. (2012). “Back to Sleep Public Education Campaign.” from Google Scholar
  12. DiFranza, J. R, C. A. Aligne, et al. (2004). “Prenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children’s health.” Pediatrics 113(4): 1007–1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Djupesland, P. G and B. A. Borresen (2000). “Computational simulation of accumulation of expired air in the infant cot.” Acta Oto-Laryn-gologica: 183–185.Google Scholar
  14. e.V, G.-D (2012). „Gemeinsame Elterninitiative Plötzlicher Säuglingstod Deutschland e.V” from
  15. Ehrensperger-Reeh, R (2008). „
  16. Evans, C, J. Wang, et al. (2005). “Hypoxia recruits a respiratory-related excitatory pathway to brainstem premotor cardiac vagal neurons in animals exposed to prenatal nicotine.” Neuro-science 133(4): 1073–1079.Google Scholar
  17. Filiano, J. J. and H. C. Kinney (1994). “A Perspective on Neuropathologic Findings in Victims of the Sudden-Infant-Death-Syndrome — the Triple-Risk Model.” Biology of the Neonate 65(3–4): 194–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fleming, P. and P. S. Blair (2007). “Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and parental smoking.” Early Human Development 83(11): 721–725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fleming, P. J., P. S. Blair, et al. (1999). “Pacifier use and sudden infant death syndrome: results from the CESDI/SUDI case control study.” Archives of Disease in Childhood 81(2): 112–116.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ford, R. P., B. J. Taylor, et al. (1993). “Breastfeeding and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome.” Int J Epidemiol 22(5): 885–890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. GEPS. (2012). „Der Plötzliche Säuglingstod.” from Google Scholar
  22. Gmgras, J. L., E. A. Mitchell, et al. (2004). “Effects of maternal cigarette smoking and cocaine use in pregnancy on fetal response to vibro-acoustic stimulation and habituation.” Acta Paediatrica 93(11): 1479–1485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goberman, A. M., S. Johnson, et al. (2008). “The effect of positioning on infant cries: Implications for sudden infant death syndrome.” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 72(2): 153–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gordon, A. E., O. R. El Ahmer, et al. (2002). “Why is smoking a risk factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome?” Child Care Health and Development 28: 23–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gordon, A. E., A. T. Saadi, et al. (1999). “The protective effect of breast feeding in relation to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): III. Detection of IgA antibodies in human milk that bind to bacterial toxins implicated in SIDS.“ Ferns Immunology and Medical Microbiology 25(1–2): 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hauck, F R., S. M. Herman, et al. (2003). “Sleep environment and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in an urban population: The Chicago infant mortality study.” Pediatrics 111(5): 1207–1214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Heininger, U, W J. Kleemann, et al. (2004). “A controlled study of the relationship between Bordetella pertussis infections and sudden unexpected deaths among German infants.” Pediatrics 114(1): E9–E15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huang, Z. G, X. Wang, et al. (2005). “Prenatal nicotine exposure recruits an excitatory pathway to brainstem parasympathetic cardioin-hibitory neurons during hypoxia/hypercapnia in the rat: Implications for sudden infant death syndrome.” Pediatric Research 58(3): 562–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hunt, C. E. and F. R. Hauck (2006). “Sudden infant death syndrome.” Canadian Medical Association Journal 174(13): 1861–1869.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jenkins, R O., T. A. Morris, et al. (2000). “Evaluation of cot mattress inner foam as a potential site for microbial generation of toxic gases.” Human & Experimental Toxicology 19(12): 693–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jorch, G., T. Tapiainen, et al. (2007). “Unexplained sudden death, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), in the first and second years of life: Case definition and guidelines for collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data.” Vaccine 25(31): 5707–5716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kanetake, J., Y. Aoki, et al. (2003). “Evaluation of rebreathing potential on bedding for infant use.” Pediatrics International 45(3): 284–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kattwinkel, J., J. Brooks, et al. (1997). “Does bed sharing affect the risk of SIDS?” Pediatrics 100(2): 272–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kmney, H. C, J. J. Fihano, et al. (2001). “Medullary serotonergic network deficiency in the sudden infant death syndrome: Review of a 15-year study of a single dataset.” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 60(3): 228–247.Google Scholar
  35. Krous, H. F., J. B. Beckwith, et al. (2004). “Sudden infant death syndrome and unclassified sudden infant deaths: A definitional and diagnostic approach.” Pediatrics 114(1): 234–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Li, J. and J. Olsen (2003). “Mortality in parents after death of a child — Reply.” Lancet 361(9370): 1748–1748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mitchell, E. A. (2007). “Recommendations for sudden infant death syndrome prevention: a discussion document.” Archives of Disease in Childhood 92(2): 155–159.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mitchell, E. A., T. Bajanowski, et al. (2008). “Prone sleeping position increases the risk of SIDS in the day more than at night.” Acta Paediatrica 97(5): 584–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mitchell, E. A., R P. K. Ford, et al. (1993). “Smoking and the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.” Pediatrics 91(5): 893–896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Mitchell, E. A., P. G. Tuohy, et al. (1997). “Risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome following the prevention campaign in New Zealand: A prospective study.” Pediatrics 100(5): 835–840.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Moon, R. Y., R. S. C. Horne, et al. (2007). “Sudden infant death syndrome.” Lancet 370(9598): 1578–1587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Neff, R. A., S. J. Simmens, et al. (2004). “Prenatal nicotine exposure alters central cardiorespiratory responses to hypoxia in rats: Implications for sudden infant death syndrome.” Journal of Neuroscience 24(42): 9261–9268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. American-Academy-of-Pediatrics (2006). “Distinguishing Sudden Infant Death Syndrome From Child Abuse Fatalities.” Pediatrics 118(1): 421–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rambaud, C, C. Guilleminault, et al. (1994). “Definition of the Sudden-Infant-Death-Syndrome.” British Medical Journal 308(6941): 1439–1439.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Robert-Koch-Institut. (2012). “Impfen.” from Google Scholar
  46. Shields, L. B. E., D M. Hunsaker, et al. (2005). “Risk factors associated with sudden unexplained infant death: A prospective study of infant care practices in Kentucky.” Pediatrics 116(1): E13–E20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sovik, S., K. Lossius, et al. (2001). “Heart rate response to transient chemoreceptor stimulation in term infants is modified by exposure to maternal smoking.” Pediatric Research 49(4): 558–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Statistisches-Bundesamt. (2012). “Todesursachen Säuglinge, Stand: 2010.”, from Google Scholar
  49. Tappin, D., H. Brooke, et al. (2002). “Used infant mattresses and sudden infant death syndrome in Scotland: case-control study.” British Medical Journal 325(7371): 1007–1009.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vennemann, M. M. T., M. Hoffgen, et al. (2007). “Do immunisations reduce the risk for SIDS? A meta-analysis.” Vaccine 25(26): 4875–4879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wigfield, R, R Gilbert, et al. (1994). “SIDS — Risk reduction measures.” Early Human Development 38(3): 161–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Willmger M, J. L., Catz C. (1991). “Defining the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): deliberations of an expert panel convened by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.” Pediatr Pathol. 11(5): 677–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Willmger, M., C. W. Ko, et al. (2003). “Trends in infant bed sharing in the United States, 1993–2000 — The National Infant Sleep Position study.” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 157(1): 43–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evelyn Krieger
    • 1
  • Stefanie Uibel
    • 1
  • Daniel Müller
    • 1
  • David Quarcoo
    • 1
  • Doris Klingelhöfer
    • 1
  • Simona Zitnik
    • 1
  • David A. Groneberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Arbeits-, Sozial- und UmweltmedizinGoethe-Universität FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainDeutschland

Personalised recommendations