Business Research

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 34–53 | Cite as

Management Research on Reciprocity: A Review of the Literature

  • Markus GöbelEmail author
  • Rick Vogel
  • Christiana Weber
Open Access


Although reciprocity is fundamental to all social orders, management research offers few reviews of the concept’s theoretical origins and current applications. To help bridge this gap, we elucidate the dominant understandings of reciprocity, ask which areas of research emerge from them, and explore how they interconnect. Our bibliometric methodology detects four clusters of management research on reciprocity. Across these clusters, authors subscribe mainly to substantialist ontology, marginalize morally oriented motives consistent with relational ontology, and largely assume that benefit-oriented motives underlie reciprocity. We outline the advantages of a moral-oriented relationalist concept of reciprocity and discuss potential areas for its development in management research.

JEL classification

F38 K22 G52 


benefit orientation bibliometrics bibliographic coupling citation analysis morality network analysis ontology practice theory reciprocity social exchange 


  1. Abbott, Andrew (1988): Transcending General Linear Reality, Sociological Theory, 6 (2): 169–186.Google Scholar
  2. Adair, Wendi L. (2003): Integrative Sequences and Negotiation Outcome in Same- and Mixed-Culture Negotiations, International Journal of Conflict Management, 14 (3–4): 273–296.Google Scholar
  3. Adair, Wendi L. and Jeanne M. Brett (2005): The Negotiation Dance: Time, Culture, and Behavioral Sequences in Negotiation, Organization Science, 16 (1): 33–51.Google Scholar
  4. Adams, John S. (1965): Inequity in Social-Exchange, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 2: 267–299.Google Scholar
  5. Ahlgren, Per and Bo Jarneving (2008): Bibliographic Coupling, Common Abstract Stems and Clustering: A Comparison of Two Document-Document Similarity Approaches in the Context of Science Mapping, Scientometrics, 76 (2): 273–290.Google Scholar
  6. Akerlof, George A. (1982): Labor Contracts as Partial Gift Exchange, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 97 (4): 543–569.Google Scholar
  7. Altman, Irwin and Dalmas A. Taylor (1973): Social Penetration: The Development of Interpersonal Relationships, Rinehart: New York, NY et al.Google Scholar
  8. Arrow, Kenneth (1975): Gifts and Exchanges, in: Edmund S. Phelps (ed.): Altruism, Morality, and Economic Theory, Sage: New York, NY, 13–28.Google Scholar
  9. Axelrod, Robert M. (1984): The Evolution of Cooperation, Basic Books: New York, NY.Google Scholar
  10. Axelrod, Robert M. and William D. Hamilton (1981): The Evolution of Cooperation, Science, 211 (4489): 1390–1396.Google Scholar
  11. Baron, Reuben M. and David A. Kenny (1986): The Moderator Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (6): 1173–1182.Google Scholar
  12. Berg, Joyce, John Dickhaut, and Kevin McCabe (1995): Trust, Reciprocity, and Social History, Games and Economic Behavior, 10 (1): 122–142.Google Scholar
  13. Bernerth, Jeremy B., Achilles A. Armenakis, Hubert S. Feild, William F. Giles, and H. Jack Walker (2007): Leader-Member Social Exchange (LMSX): Development and Validation of a Scale, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28 (8): 979–1003.Google Scholar
  14. Bernerth, Jeremy B., Achilles A. Armenakis, William F. Giles, and H. Jack Walker (2008): The Influence of Personality Differences Between Subordinates and Supervisors on Perceptions of LMX: An Empirical Investigation, Group & Organization Management, 33 (2): 216–240.Google Scholar
  15. Biele, Guido, Rieskamp, Jorg, and Uwe Czienskowski (2008): Explaining Cooperation in Groups: Testing Models of Reciprocity and Learning, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 106 (2): 89–105.Google Scholar
  16. Biggart, Nicole W. and Rick Delbridge (2004): Systems of Exchange, Academy of Management Review, 29 (1): 28–49.Google Scholar
  17. Blau, Peter M. (1964): Exchange and Power in Social Life, Wiley: New York, NY et al.Google Scholar
  18. Blau, Peter M. (1974): On the Nature of Organizations, Wiley: New York, NY et al.Google Scholar
  19. Bolton, Gary E., Elena Katok, and Axel Ockenfels (2004): How Effective are Electronic Reputation Mechanisms? An Experimental Investigation, Management Science, 50 (11): 1587–1602.Google Scholar
  20. Bolton, Gary E. and Axel Ockenfels (2000): ERC: A Theory of Equity, Reciprocity, and Competition, American Economic Review, 90 (1): 166–193.Google Scholar
  21. Borgatti, Stephen P., Martin G. Everett, and Linton C. Freeman (2002): Ucinet for Windows: Software for Social Network Analysis, Analytic Technologies: Harvard, MA.Google Scholar
  22. Bosse, Douglas A., Robert A. Phillips, and Jeffrey S. Harrison (2009): Stakeholders, Reciprocity, and Firm Performance, Strategic Management Journal, 30 (4): 447–456.Google Scholar
  23. Bourdieu, Pierre (1990): The Logic of Practice, Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  24. Bourdieu, Pierre (1998): The Practical Reason: On the Theory of Action, Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  25. Bowey, James L. and Geoff Easton (2007): Entrepreneurial Social Capital Unplugged: An Activity-Based Analysis, International Small Business Journal, 25 (3): 273–306.Google Scholar
  26. Boyd, Robert and Peter J. Richerson (1992): Punishment Allows the Evolution of Cooperation (or Anything Else) in Sizable Groups, Ethology and Sociobiology, 13 (3): 171–195.Google Scholar
  27. Brandts, Jordi and Gary Charness (2003): Truth or Consequences: An Experiment, Management Science, 49 (1), 116–130.Google Scholar
  28. Brennan, Ian and Kenneth D. Bahn (1991): Door-In-The-Face, That’s-Not-All, and Legitimizing a Paltry Contribution: Reciprocity, Contrast Effect and Social Judgment Theory Explanations, Advances in Consumer Research, 18: 586–590.Google Scholar
  29. Brett, Jeanne M., Debra L. Shapiro, and Anne L. Lytle (1998): Breaking the Bonds of Reciprocity in Negotiations, Academy of Management Journal, 41 (4): 410–424.Google Scholar
  30. Burt, Ronald S. (1992): Structural Holes, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  31. Butler, John K. (1991): Toward Understanding and Measuring Conditions of Trust: Evolution of a Conditions of Trust Inventory, Journal of Management, 17 (3): 643–663.Google Scholar
  32. Butt, Arif N., Jin N. Choi, and Alfred M. Jaeger (2005): The Effects of Self-Emotion, Counterpart Emotion, and Counterpart Behavior on Negotiator Behavior: A Comparison of Individual-Level and Dyad-Level Dynamics, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26 (6): 681–704.Google Scholar
  33. Cable, Daniel M. and Scott Shane (1997): A Prisoner’s Dilemma Approach to Entrepreneur-Venture Capitalist Relationships, Academy of Management Review, 22 (1): 142–176.Google Scholar
  34. Cashdan, Elizabeth A. (1985): Coping With Risk: Reciprocity Among the Basarwa of Northern Botswana, Man, 20 (3): 454–474.Google Scholar
  35. Cassirer, Ernst (1953): Substance and Function, Dover: New York, NY.Google Scholar
  36. Chang, Linda, Mandy Cheng, and Ken T. Trotman (2008): The Effect of Framing and Negotiation Partner’s Objective on Judgments About Negotiated Transfer Prices, Accounting Organizations and Society, 33 (7–8): 704–717.Google Scholar
  37. Charness, Gary and Matthew Rabin (2002): Understanding Social Preferences With Simple Tests, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117 (3): 817–869.Google Scholar
  38. Chiu, Chao-Min, Meng-Hsiang Hsu, and Eric T. G. Wang (2006): Understanding Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Communities: An Integration of Social Capital and Social Cognitive Theories, Decision Support Systems, 42 (3): 1872–1888.Google Scholar
  39. Cialdini, Robert B. (1993): Influence: Science and Practice, 3rd ed., Harper Collins: New York, NY.Google Scholar
  40. Coleman, James (1990): Foundations of Social Theory, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  41. Cox, James C. (2004): How to Identify Trust and Reciprocity, Games and Economic Behavior, 46 (2): 260–281.Google Scholar
  42. Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A. M., Paula C. Morrow, Ray Richardson, and Stephen R. Dunn (2002): Using Profit Sharing to Enhance Employee Attitudes: A Longitudinal Examination of the Effects on Trust and Commitment, Human Resource Management, 41 (4): 423–439.Google Scholar
  43. Cozby, Paul C. (1973): Self-disclosure: A Literature Review, Psychological Bulletin, 79 (2): 73–91.Google Scholar
  44. Cropanzano, Russell and Marie S. Mitchell (2005): Social Exchange Theory: An Interdisciplinary Review, Journal of Management 31 (6): 874–900.Google Scholar
  45. Dabos, Guillermo E. and Denise M. Rousseau (2004): Mutuality and Reciprocity in the Psychological Contracts of Employee and Employer, Journal of Applied Psychology, 89 (1): 52–72.Google Scholar
  46. Dana, Jason, Daylian M. Cain, and Robyn M. Dawes (2006): What You Don’t Know Won’t Hurt Me: Costly (but Quiet) Exit in Dictator Games, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 100 (2): 193–201.Google Scholar
  47. De Boer, Elpine M., Arnold B. Bakker, Jef E. Syroit, and Wilmar B. Schaufeli (2002): Unfairness at Work as a Predictor of Absenteeism, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23 (2): 181–197.Google Scholar
  48. De Ruyter, Ko and Martin Wetzels (2000): Determinants of a Relational Exchange Orientation in the Marketing-Manufacturing Interface: An Empirical Investigation, Journal of Management Studies, 37 (2): 257–276.Google Scholar
  49. De Solla Price, Derek J. (1965): The Science of Science, in: John R. Platt (ed.): New Views on the Nature of Man, University Press: Chicago, IL et al., 47–70.Google Scholar
  50. De Vos, Ans, Dirk Buyens, and René R. Schalk (2003): Psychological Contract Development During Organizational Socialization: Adaptation to Reality and the Role of Reciprocity, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24 (5): 537–559.Google Scholar
  51. Deckop, John R., Carol C. Cirka, and Lynne M. Andersson (2003): Doing Unto Others: The Reciprocity of Helping Behavior in Organizations, Journal of Business Ethics, 47 (2): 101–113.Google Scholar
  52. Deluga, Ronald J. (1998): Leader-Member Exchange Quality and Effectiveness Ratings: The Role of Subordinate-Supervisor Conscientiousness Similarity, Group & Organization Management, 23 (2): 189–216.Google Scholar
  53. Desiraju, Ramarao and David E. M. Sappington (2007): Equity and Adverse Selection, Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 16 (2): 285–318.Google Scholar
  54. Dewey, John and Arthur F. Bentley (1949): Knowing and the Known, Beacon Press: Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  55. Dorado, Miguel A., Francisco J. Medina, Lourdes Munduate, Inmaculada F. J. Cisneros, and Martin Euwema (2002): Computer-Mediated Negotiation of an Escalated Conflict, Small Group Research, 33 (5): 509–524.Google Scholar
  56. Dufwenberg, Martin and Georg Kirchsteiger (2004): A Theory of Sequential Reciprocity, Games and Economic Behavior, 47 (2): 268–298.Google Scholar
  57. Dulac, Tanguy, Jaqueline A. M. Coyle-Shapiro, David J. Henderson, and Sandy J. Wayne (2008): Not All Responses to Breach are the Same: The Interconnection of Social Exchange and Psychological Contract Processes in Organizations, Academy of Management Journal, 51 (6): 1079–1098.Google Scholar
  58. Eder, Paul and Robert Eisenberger (2008): Perceived Organizational Support: Reducing the Negative Influence of Coworker Withdrawal behavior, Journal of Management, 34 (1): 55–68.Google Scholar
  59. Eisenberger, Robert, Robin Huntington, Steven Hutchison, and Debora Sowa (1986): Perceived Organizational Support, Journal of Applied Psychology, 71 (3): 500–507.Google Scholar
  60. Ekeh, Peter P. (1974): Social Exchange Theory: The Two Traditions, Heinemann: London et al.Google Scholar
  61. Emirbayer, Mustafa (1997): Manifesto for a Relational Sociology, American Journal of Sociology, 103 (2): 281–317.Google Scholar
  62. Evans, W. Randy and Walter D. Davis (2005): High-Performance Work Systems and Organizational Performance: The Mediating Role of Internal Social Structure, Journal of Management, 31 (5): 758–775.Google Scholar
  63. Farh, Jiingh-Lih, Rick D. Hackett, and Jian Liang (2007): Individual-Level Cultural Values as Moderators of Perceived Organizational Support-Employee Outcome Relationships in China: Comparing the Effects of Power Distance and Traditionality, Academy of Management Journal, 50 (3): 715–729.Google Scholar
  64. Fehr, Ernst and Urs Fischbacher (2003): The Nature of Human Altruism, Nature, 425: 785–791.Google Scholar
  65. Fehr, Ernst and Urs Fischbacher (2005): Human Altruism — Proximate Patterns and Evolutionary Origins: Analyse & Kritik, 27 (1): 6–47.Google Scholar
  66. Fehr, Ernst, Urs Fischbacher, and Simon Gächter (2002): Strong Reciprocity, Human Cooperation and the Enforcement of Social Norms, Human Nature, 13 (1): 1–25.Google Scholar
  67. Fehr, Ernst and Simon Gächter (2000): Fairness and Retaliation: The Economics of Reciprocity, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14 (3): 159–181.Google Scholar
  68. Fehr, Ernst, Georg Kirchsteiger, and Arno Riedl (1993): Does Fairness Prevent Market Clearing? An Experimental Investigation, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108 (2): 437–459.Google Scholar
  69. Fehr, Ernst, Simon Gächter, and Georg Kirchsteiger (1997): Reciprocity as a Contract Enforcement Device: Experimental Evidence, Econometrica, 65 (4): 833–860.Google Scholar
  70. Fehr, Ernst and Klaus M. Schmidt (1999): A Theory of Fairness, Competition, and Cooperation, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114 (3): 817–868.Google Scholar
  71. Fennis, Bob M., Loes Janssen, and Kathleen D. Vohs (2009): Acts of Benevolence: A Limited-Resource Account of Compliance With Charitable Requests, Journal of Consumer Research, 35 (6): 906–924.Google Scholar
  72. Ferrin, Donald L., Michelle C. Bligh, and Jeffrey C. Kohles (2008): It Takes Two to Tango: An Interdependence Analysis of the Spiraling of Perceived Trustworthiness and Cooperation in Interpersonal and Intergroup Relationships, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 107 (2): 161–178.Google Scholar
  73. Fichman, Mark (2003): Straining Towards Trust: Some Constraints on Studying Trust in Organizations, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24 (2): 133–157.Google Scholar
  74. Fischer, Maria-Elisabeth, Bernd Irlenbusch, and Abdolkarim Sadrieh (2004): An Intergenerational Common Pool Resource Experiment, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 48 (2): 811–836.Google Scholar
  75. Flynn, Francis J. (2006): “How Much Is It Worth to You? Subjective Evaluations of Help in Organizations”, Research in Organizational Behavior, 27: 133–174.Google Scholar
  76. Frenkel, Stephen J. and Karin Sanders (2007): Explaining Variations in Co-Worker Assistance in Organizations, Organization Studies, 28 (6): 797–823.Google Scholar
  77. Friedman, Raymond A. and Steven C. Currall (2003): Conflict Escalation: Dispute Exacerbating Elements of E-Mail Communication, Human Relations, 56 (11): 1325–1347.Google Scholar
  78. Garfield, Eugene (1955): Citation Indexes for Science: A New Dimension in Documentation Through Association of Ideas, Science, 122 (3159): 108–111.Google Scholar
  79. Garner, Randy (2005): Post-It Note Persuasion: A Sticky Influence, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15 (3): 230–237.Google Scholar
  80. Giddens, Anthony (1984): The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration, University Press: Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  81. Göbel, Markus, Günther Ortmann, and Christiana Weber (2007): Reziprozität: Kooperation zwischen Nutzen und Pflicht, Managementforschung, 17: 161–205.Google Scholar
  82. Gould-Williams, Julian and Fiona Davies (2005): Using Social Exchange Theory to Predict the Effects of HRM Practice on Employee Outcomes: An Analysis of Public Sector Workers, Public Management Review, 7 (1): 1–24.Google Scholar
  83. Gouldner, Alvin W. (1960): The Norm of Reciprocity: A Preliminary Statement, American Sociological Review, 25 (2): 161–178.Google Scholar
  84. Granovetter, Mark (1973): Strength of Weak Ties, American Journal of Sociology, 78 (6): 1360–1380.Google Scholar
  85. Granovetter, Mark (1985): Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness, American Journal of Sociology, 91 (3): 481–510.Google Scholar
  86. Güth, Werner (1995): On Ultimatum Bargaining Experiments: A Personal Review, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 27 (3): 329–344.Google Scholar
  87. Haar, Jarrod M. (2006): Challenge and Hindrance Stressors in New Zealand: Exploring Social Exchange Theory Outcomes, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17 (11): 1942–1950.Google Scholar
  88. Hamilton, William D. (1964): The Genetical Evolution of Social behavior. I, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7 (1): 1–16.Google Scholar
  89. Hannan, R. Lynn (2005): The Combined Effect of Wages and Firm Profit on Employee Effort, Accounting Review, 80 (1): 167–188.Google Scholar
  90. Hatfield, Richard C., Christopher P. Agoglia, and Maria H. Sanchez (2008): Client Characteristics and the Negotiation Tactics of Auditors: Implications for Financial Reporting, Journal of Accounting Research, 46 (5): 1183–1207.Google Scholar
  91. Hawkes, Kristen (1993): Why Hunter-Gatherers Work: An Ancient Version of the Problem of Public Goods, Current Anthropology, 34 (4): 341–361.Google Scholar
  92. Hayashi, Nahoko, Elinor Ostrom, James Walker, and Toshio Yamagishi (1999): Reciprocity, Trust, and the Sense of Control: A Cross-Societal Study, Rationality and Society, 11 (1): 27–46.Google Scholar
  93. Hekman, David R., Gregory A. Bigley, H. Kevin Steensma, and James F. Hereford (2009): Combined Effects of Organizational and Professional Identification on the Reciprocity Dynamic for Professional Employees, Academy of Management Journal, 52 (3): 506–526.Google Scholar
  94. Hillebrandt, Frank (2008): Der Tausch als marktstrukturierende Praxisform. Ein Beitrag zur kultursoziologischen Fundierung der Wirtschaftssoziologie, (Access date: 2013-02-19).
  95. Hirsch, Paul M. and Michael Lounsbury (1997): Ending the Family Quarrel: Toward a Reconciliation of ‘Old’ and ‘New’ Institutionalisms, American Behavioral Scientist, 40 (4): 406–418.Google Scholar
  96. Hirshleifer, David (1988): Cooperation in a finitely repeated prisoner’s dilemma game with ostracism, Working Paper, University of California: Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  97. Ho, Violet T., Denise M. Rousseau, and Laurie L. Levesque (2006): Social Networks and the Psychological Contract: Structural Holes, Cohesive Ties, and Beliefs Regarding Employer Obligations, Human Relations, 59 (4): 459–481.Google Scholar
  98. Homans, George C. (1961): Social Behavior: Its Elementary Forms, Harcourt, Brace & World: New York, NY.Google Scholar
  99. Jarneving, Bo (2005): A Comparison of Two Bibliometric Methods for Mapping of the Research Front, Scientometrics, 65 (2): 245–263.Google Scholar
  100. Jarneving, Bo (2007): Bibliographic Coupling and Its Application to Research-Front and Other Core Documents, Journal of Informetrics, 1 (4): 287–307.Google Scholar
  101. Johnson, Jean L. and Ravipreet S. Sohi (2001): The Influence of Firm Predispositions on Interfirm Relationship Formation in Business Markets, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 18 (4): 299–318.Google Scholar
  102. Johnson, Norman A. and Randolph B. Cooper (2009a): Media, Affect, Concession, and Agreement in Negotiation: IM Versus Telephone, Decision Support Systems, 46 (3): 673–684.Google Scholar
  103. Johnson, Norman A. and Randolph B. Cooper (2009b): Power and Concession in Computer-Mediated Negotiations: An Examination of First Offers, MIS Quarterly, 33 (1): 147–170.Google Scholar
  104. Kacmar, K. Michele, Martha C. Andrews, David L. Van Rooy, R. Chris Steilberg, and Stephen Cerrone (2006): Sure Everyone Can Be Replaced … But at What Cost? Turnover as a Predictor of Unit-Level Performance, Academy of Management Journal, 49 (1): 133–144.Google Scholar
  105. Kaplan, Hillard and Kim Hill (1985): Hunting Ability and Reproductive Success Among Male Ache Foragers: Preliminary Results, Current Anthropology, 26 (1): 131–133.Google Scholar
  106. Kessler, Maxwell Mirton (1963): Bibliographic Coupling Between Scientific Papers, American Documentation, 14 (1): 10–25.Google Scholar
  107. Kollock, Peter (1994): The Emergence of Exchange Structures: An Experimental Study of Uncertainty, Commitment, and Trust, American Journal of Sociology, 100 (2): 313–345.Google Scholar
  108. Kolm, Serge-Christophe (2008): Reciprocity: An Economics of Social Relations, University Press: Cambridge, UK et al.Google Scholar
  109. Koster, Ferry and Karin Sanders (2006): Organisational Citizens or Reciprocal Relationships? An Empirical Comparison, Personnel Review, 35 (5): 519–537.Google Scholar
  110. Kreps, David M., Paul Milgrom, John Roberts, and Robert Wilson (1982): Rational Cooperation in the Finitely Repeated Prisoners’ Dilemma, Journal of Economic Theory, 27 (2): 245–252.Google Scholar
  111. Lado, Augustine A., Nancy G. Boyd, and Susan C. Hanlon (1997): Competition, Cooperation, and the Search for Economic Rents: A Syncretic Model, Academy of Management Review, 22 (1): 110–141.Google Scholar
  112. Larson, Andrea (1992): Network Dyads in Entrepreneurial Settings: A Study of the Governance of Exchange Relationships, Administrative Science Quarterly, 37 (1): 76–104.Google Scholar
  113. Lee, Doo-Hee, Seunghee Im, and Charles R. Taylor (2008): Voluntary Self-Disclosure of Information on the Internet: A Multimethod Study of the Motivations and Consequences of Disclosing Information on Blogs, Psychology & Marketing, 25 (7): 692–710.Google Scholar
  114. Lester, Scott W., Bruce M. Meglino, and M. Audrey Korsgaard (2008): The Role of Other Orientation in Organizational Citizenship behavior, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29 (6): 829–841.Google Scholar
  115. Levi-Strauss, Claude (1969): The Elementary Structures of Kinship, Beacon Press: Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  116. Leydesdorff, Loet (2001): The Challenge of Scientometrics: The Development, Measurement, and Self-Organization of Scientific Communications, Universal Publishers: Parkland, IL.Google Scholar
  117. Liden, Robert C., Sandy J. Wayne, Maria L. Kraimer, and Raymond T. Sparrowe (2003): The Dual Commitments of Contingent Workers: An Examination of Contingents’ Commitment to the Agency and the Organization, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24 (5): 609–625.Google Scholar
  118. Loch, Christoph H. and Yaozhong Wu (2008): Social Preferences and Supply Chain Performance: An Experimental Study, Management Science, 54 (11): 1835–1849.Google Scholar
  119. Luhmann, Niklas (1995): Social Systems, Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  120. Lytle, Anne L., Jeanne M. Brett, and Debra L. Shapiro (1999): The Strategic Use of Interests, Rights, and Power to Resolve Disputes, Negotiation Journal, 15 (1): 31–52.Google Scholar
  121. Malhotra, Deepak (2004): Trust and Reciprocity Decisions: The Differing Perspectives of Trustors and Trusted Parties, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 94 (2): 61–73.Google Scholar
  122. Malinowski, Bronislaw (1949): Crime and Custom in Savage Society, Routledge: London.Google Scholar
  123. Mathwick, Charla, Caroline Wiertz, and Ko De Ruyter (2008): Social Capital Production in a Virtual P3 Community, Journal of Consumer Research, 34 (6): 832–849.Google Scholar
  124. Mauss, Marcel (1990): The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies, Norton: New York, NY et al.Google Scholar
  125. McGinn, Kathleen L. and Angela T. Keros (2002): Improvisation and the Logic of Exchange in Socially Embedded Transactions, Administrative Science Quarterly, 47 (3): 442–473.Google Scholar
  126. Mead, George H. (1934): Mind, Self, and Society, University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  127. Meeker, Barbara F. (1984): Cooperative Orientation, Trust, and Reciprocity, Human Relations, 37 (3): 225–243.Google Scholar
  128. Merton, Robert (1957): Social Theory and Social Structure, Free Press: Glencoe, IL.Google Scholar
  129. Molm, Linda D. (2003): Theoretical Comparisons of Forms of Exchange, Sociological Theory, 21 (1): 1–17.Google Scholar
  130. Morales, Andrea C. (2005): Giving Firms an “E” for Effort: Consumer Responses to High-Effort Firms, Journal of Consumer Research, 31 (4): 806–812.Google Scholar
  131. Muse, Lori, Stanley G. Harris, William F. Giles, and Hubert S. Field (2008): Work-Life Benefits and Positive Organizational Behavior: Is There a Connection?, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29 (2): 171–192.Google Scholar
  132. Muthusamy, Senthil K. and Margaret A. White (2005): Learning and Knowledge Transfer in Strategic Alliances: A social Exchange View, Organization Studies, 26 (3): 415–441.Google Scholar
  133. Nalebuff, Barry J. and Adam Brandenburger (1998): Co-Opetition, Doubleday: New York, NY et al.Google Scholar
  134. Nowak, Martin A. and Karl Sigmund (2005): Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity, Nature, 437: 1291–1298.Google Scholar
  135. Olekalns, Mara, Christopher Robert, Tahira Probst, Philip L. Smith, and Peter J. Carnevale (2005): The Impact of Message Frame on Negotiators’ Impressions, Emotions, and Behaviors, International Journal of Conflict Management, 16 (4): 379–402.Google Scholar
  136. Olekalns, Mara and Philip L. Smith (2003): Social Motives in Negotiation: The Relationships Between Dyad Composition, Negotiation Processes and Outcomes, International Journal of Conflict Management, 14 (3–4): 233–254.Google Scholar
  137. Paese, Paul W., Ann M. Schreiber, and Adam W. Taylor (2003): Caught Telling the Truth: Effects of Honesty and Communication Media in Distributive Negotiations, Group Decision and Negotiation, 12 (6): 537–566.Google Scholar
  138. Parkhe, Arvind (1993): Strategic Alliance Structuring: A Game Theoretic and Transaction Cost Examination of Interfirm Cooperation, Academy of Management Journal, 36 (4): 794–829.Google Scholar
  139. Parzefall, Marjo-Ritta (2008): Psychological Contracts and Reciprocity: A Study in a Finnish Context, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19 (9): 1703.1719.Google Scholar
  140. Pervan, Simon J., Liliana L. Bove, and Lester W. Johnson (2009): Reciprocity as a Key Stabilizing Norm of Interpersonal Marketing Relationships: Scale Development and Validation, Industrial Marketing Management, 38 (1): 60–70.Google Scholar
  141. Pizzorno, Alessandro (1991): On the Individualistic Theory of Social Order, in: Pierre Bourdieu and James S. Coleman (eds.): Social Theory for a Changing Society, Sage: New York, NY, 209–231.Google Scholar
  142. Polanyi, Karl (1944): The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time, Rinehart: New York, NY.Google Scholar
  143. Powell, Walter W. (1987): Hybrid Organizational Arrangements: New Form or Transitional Development?, California Management Review, 30 (1): 67–87.Google Scholar
  144. Price, Michael E. (2006a): Judgments About Cooperators and Freeriders on a Shuar Work Team: An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 101 (1): 20–35.Google Scholar
  145. Price, Michael E. (2006b): Monitoring, Reputation, and ‘Greenbeard’ Reciprocity in a Shuar Work Team, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27 (2): 201–219.Google Scholar
  146. Pritchard, Alan (1969): Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics, Journal of Documentation, 25 (4): 348–349.Google Scholar
  147. Purvis, Lynne J. Millward and Mark Cropley (2003): Psychological Contracting: Processes of Contract Formation During Interviews Between Nannies and Their ‘Employers’, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76 (2): 213–241.Google Scholar
  148. Rabin, Matthew (1993): Incorporating Fairness Into Game Theory and Economics, American Economic Review, 83 (5): 1281–1302.Google Scholar
  149. Reckwitz, Andreas (2003): Grundelemente einer Theorie sozialer Praktiken: Eine sozialtheoretische Perspektive, Zeitschrift für Soziologie, 32 (4): 282–301.Google Scholar
  150. Robinson, Sandra L. and Elizabeth W. Morrison (1995): Psychological Contracts and OCB: The Effect of Unfulfilled Obligations on Civic Virtue Behaviour, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16 (3): 289–298.Google Scholar
  151. Roth, Alvin E. (1995): Bargaining Experiments, in: John H. Kagel and Alvin E. Roth (eds.): Handbook of experimental economics, Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, 253–348.Google Scholar
  152. Sahlins, Marshall D. (1972): Stone Age Economics, Gruyter: New York, NY.Google Scholar
  153. Salamon, Sabrina D. and Yuval Deutsch (2006): OCB as a Handicap: An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27 (2): 185–199.Google Scholar
  154. Sanders, Karin and Birgit Schyns (2006): Trust, Conflict and Cooperative Behavior: Considering Reciprocity Within Organizations, Personnel Review, 35 (5): 508–518.Google Scholar
  155. Settoon, Randall P., Nathan Bennett, and Robert C. Liden (1996): Social Exchange in Organizations: Perceived Organizational Support, Leader-Member Exchange, and Employee Reciprocity, Journal of Applied Psychology, 81 (3): 219–227.Google Scholar
  156. Simmel, Georg (1950): The Sociology of Georg Simmel, Free Press: Glencoe, IL.Google Scholar
  157. Sloof, Randolph, Hessel Oosterbeek, and Joep Sonnemans (2007): Does Making Specific Investments Unobservable Boost Investment Incentives?, Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 16 (4): 911–942.Google Scholar
  158. Smith, Adam (1776/1976): An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  159. Song, Fei (2009): Intergroup Trust and Reciprocity in Strategic Interactions: Effects of Group Decision-Making Mechanisms, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108 (1): 164–173.Google Scholar
  160. Sparrowe, Raymond T. and Robert C. Liden (1997): Process and Structure in Leader-Member Exchange, Academy of Management Review, 22 (2): 522–552.Google Scholar
  161. Taylor, Paul J. and Ian Donald (2003): Foundations and Evidence for an Interaction-Based Approach to Conflict Negotiation, International Journal of Conflict Management, 14 (3–4): 213–232.Google Scholar
  162. Thibaut, John W. and Harold H. Kelley (1959): The Social Psychology of Groups, Wiley: New York, NY et al.Google Scholar
  163. Trivers, Robert L. (1971): Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism, Quarterly Review of Biology, 46 (1): 35–57.Google Scholar
  164. Verbeke, Willem and Stefan Wuyts (2007): Moving in Social Circles: Social Circle Membership and Performance Implications, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28 (4): 357–379.Google Scholar
  165. Von Hippel, Eric (1987): Cooperation Between Rivals: Informal Know-How Trading, Research Policy, 16 (6): 291–302.Google Scholar
  166. Wasko, Molly M. and Samer Faraj (2005): Why Should I Share? Examining Social Capital and Knowledge Contribution in Electronic Networks of Practice, MIS Quarterly, 29 (1): 35–57.Google Scholar
  167. Weber, Christiana and Markus Göbel (2010): Reciprocity and Interorganizational Governance: A Multicase Analysis of Exchange Systems, Scandinavian Journal of Management, 26 (2): 134–150.Google Scholar
  168. Weber, Christiana, Günther Ortmann, and Markus Göbel (2010): Reciprocity in and Between Organizations: Cooperation Between Benefit and Obligation, Working Paper, University of Siegen.Google Scholar
  169. Weber, Christiana and Barbara Weber (2011): Exploring the Antecedents of Social Liabilities in CVC Triads: A Dynamic Social Network Perspective, Journal of Business Venturing, 26 (2): 255–272.Google Scholar
  170. Weber, J. Mark, Deepak Malhotra, and J. Keith Murnighan (2005): Normal Acts of Irrational Trust: Motivated Attributions and the Trust Development Process, Research in Organizational Behavior, 26: 75–101.Google Scholar
  171. Westwood, Robert, Paul Sparrow, and Alicia Leung (2001): Challenges to the Psychological Contract in Hong Kong, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12 (4): 621–651.Google Scholar
  172. Wiertz, Caroline and Ko de Ruyter (2007): Beyond the Call of Duty: Why Customers Contribute to Firm-Hosted Commercial Online Communities, Organization Studies, 28 (3): 347–376.Google Scholar
  173. Williamson, Michael G. (2008): The Effects of Expanding Employee Decision Making on Contributions to Firm Value in an Informal Reward Environment, Contemporary Accounting Research, 25 (4): 1183–1209.Google Scholar
  174. Williamson, Oliver E. (1993): Calculativeness, Trust and Economic Organization, Journal of Law & Economics, 36: 453–486.Google Scholar
  175. Wu, Yaozhong Z., Christoph H. Loch, and Ludo van der Heyden (2008): A Model of Fair Process and its Limits, Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 10 (4): 637–653.Google Scholar
  176. Zhang, Ann Y., Anne S. Tsui, Lynda J. Song, Chaoping P. Li, and Liangding Jia (2008): How Do I Trust Thee? The Employee-Organization Relationship, Supervisory Support, and Middle Manager Trust in the Organization, Human Resource Management, 47 (1): 111–132.Google Scholar
  177. Zwick, Rami and Xiao-Ping Chen (1999): What Price Fairness? A Bargaining Study, Management Science, 45(6): 804–823.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Organization and LogisticHelmut-Schmidt-University of HamburgGermany
  2. 2.Zeppelin UniversityGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Management and Organizational BehaviorLeibniz University of HannoverGermany

Personalised recommendations