Congo red, which has a complex molecular structure with various diazo aromatic groups, is widely used in textile industry as an anionic dye. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degradation of Congo red in laboratory solution which had the chemical properties of the rinse waters of textile manufacturing dye-houses and the samples with Congo red alone wastewater by ozonation and to optimize the reaction parameters such as pH and time which influence the efficiencies of total organic carbon, total kjeldahl nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand removal. Ozonation of Congo red dye were carried out in a semi-batch reactor with constant ozone flow rate and concentration of 23 mL/sec and 13.6 mg/L, respectively. Decolorization was complete within a few minutes of ozonation possibly due to the cleavage of chromophore groups. It was observed that its structural destruction occurs predominantly at higher pHs. The reduction of chemical oxygen demand and destruction of the dye was more than 60 % and 42 %, respectively. Total kjeldahl nitrogen removal was accompanied by slight changes in nitrogen oxides. It can be deduced from the experimental results that: (a) the mineralization is very weak; (b) the reaction follows the indirect mechanism; i.e., the interaction of hydroxyl radicals with the dye and (c) the nitrification is rather predominant. Biological oxygen demand is declined in simulated alkalic and neutral samples respectively. At 13.6 mg O3/L, the biological oxygen demand levels were significantly enhanced. This might be attributable to the enhancement of its biodegradation at alkaline pHs.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ahmet, B.; Ayfer, Y.; Doris, L.; Nese, N.; Antonius, K., (2003). Ozonation of high strength segregated effluents from a woolen textile dyeing and finishing plant., Dyes Pigments, 58, 93–98.
Alaton, A.; Balcioglu, I. A., (2002). Advanced oxidation of reactive dye bath effluent: Comparison of O3, H2O2/UV-C and TiO2/UV-A Processes., Water Res., 36(5), 1143–1154.
Arslan, I.; Balcioglu, I. A.; Tukhanen, T., (1999). Oxidative treatment of simulated dyehouse effluent by UV and near-UV light assisted Fenton’s reagent., Chemosphere, 39(15), 2767–2783.
Arslan, I. A.; Balcioglu, I. A.; Bahnemann, D. W., (2002). Advanced oxidation of a reactive dye-bath effluent: comparison of O3, H2O2/UV-C and TiO2/UV-A processes., Water Res., 36, 1143–1154.
Azbar, N.; Yonar, T.; Kestioglu, K., (2004). Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes and chemical treatment methods for COD and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dying effluent., Chemosphere, 55(1), 35–43.
Balcioglu, I. A.; Arslan, I., (1999). Degradation of commercial reactive dyestuffs by heterogeneous and homogenous advanced oxidation processes: A comparative study., Dyes Pigments, 43(2), 95–108.
Banat, I. M.; Nigam, P.; Singh, D.; Marchant, R., (1996). Microbial decolorization of textiledye-containing effluents: a review, Bioresource. Tech., 58(3), 217–227.
Bila, D. M.; Montalvao, A. F.; Silva, A. C.; Dezotti, M., (2005). Ozonation of landfill leachate: evaluation of toxicity removal and biodegrability improvement., J. Hazard. Mater. B, 117(2–3), 235–242.
Chen, G.; Lei, L.; Yue, P. L., (1999). Wet oxidation of high concentration reactive dyes., Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 38(5), 1837–1843.
Chun, H.; Yizhong, W., (1999). Decolorization and biodegradability of photocatalytic treated azo dyes and wool textile wastewater., Chemosphere, 39(12), 2107–2115.
Eremektar, G.; Selcuk, H.; Meric, S., (2007). Investigation of the relation between COD fractions and the toxicity in a textile finishing industry wastewater: effect of preozonation., Desalination, 211(1–3), 314–320.
Faouzi, M.; Caizares, P.; Gadri, A.; Lobato, J.; Nasr, B.; Paz, R.; Rodrigo, M. A.; Saez, C., (2006). Advanced oxidation processes for thetreatment of wastes polluted with azoic dyes., Electrochem. Acta, 52(1), 325–31.
Gokcen, F.; Ozbelge, T. A., (2005). Enhancement of biodegrability by continuous ozonation in Acid Red-151 solutions and kinetics modeling., Chem. Eng. J., 114, 99–104.
Hung Yee, S.; Ming Chin, C., (2005). Decolorization effects of six azo dyes by O3, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2 processes., Dyes Pigments, 65(1), 25–31.
Jiangning, W.; Tingwei, W., (2001). Ozonation of aqueous azo dye in a semi-batch reactor., Water Res., 35, 1093–1099.
Karbassi, A. R.; Nouri, J.; Ayaz, G. O., (2007). Flocculation of heavy metals during mixing of Talar river water with Caspian Sea water. Int. J. Environ. Res., 1(1), 66–73.
Karbassi, A. R.; Nouri, J.; Mehrdadi, N.; Ayaz, G. O., (2008). Flocculation of heavy metals during mixing of fresh water with Caspian Sea water. Environ. Geol., 53(8), 1811–1816.
Karbassi, A. R.; Saeedi, M., (2008). Esturian capacity in removal of trace metals from contaminated river water, Southern Caspian Sea. Water Environ. J., doi: 10.1111/j.1747-6593.2007.00101.x
Khadhraoui, M.; Trabelsi, H.; Ksibi, M.; Bouguerra, S.; Elleuch, B., (In press). Discoloration and detoxicification of a Congo red dye solution by means of ozone treatment for a possible water reuse., J. Hazard. Mater.
Koch, M.; Yediler, A., (2002). Ozonation of hydrolyzed azo dye reactive yellow 84(CI). Chemosphere, 46(1),109–113.
Legini, O.; Oliveros, E.; Braun, A. M., (1993). Photochemical processes for water treatment., Chem. Rev., 93(2), 671–698.
Lopez, A.; Ricco, G.; Mascolo, G.; Di Pinto, G.; Pssino, R., (1998). Biodegrability enhancement of refractory pollutants by ozonation: a laboratory investigation on azo-dyes intermediate., Water Sci. Tech., 38(4–5), 239–245.
Martins, A. O.; Canalli, V. M.; Azevedo, C. M. N.; Pires, M., (2006). Degradation of pararosaniline (C.I. Basic Red 9 monohydrochloride) dye by ozonation and sonolysis., Dyes Pigments, 68(2–3), 227–234.
Muthukumar, M.; Sargunamani, D.; Selvakumar, N.; Venkata Rao, J.; (2004). Optimisation of ozone treatment for color and COD removal of acid dye effluent using central composite design Experiment., Dye Pigments., 63(2),127–134.
Oliva, S. P.; Soares, J. M.; António, V.; Manuel, F. R., (2006). Ozonation of textile effluents and dye solutions under continuous operation: Influence of operating parameters., J. Hazard. Mater., 137(3), 1664–1673.
Razo-Flores, E.; Luijten, M.; Donlon, B.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J., (1997). Biodegradation of selectedazo dyes undermethanogenic conditions., Water Sci. Tech., 36(6–7), 65–72.
Sarasa, J.; Cortes, S.; Ormand, P.; Gracia, R.; Ovelleiro, J. L., (2002). Study of aromatic by-products formed from ozonation of anilines in aqueous solution., Water Res., 36(12), 3035–3044.
Sheng, H.; Cheng, L., (2000). Kinetic characteristics of textile wastewater ozonation in fluidized and fixed activated carbon beds., Water Res., 34(3), 763–772.
Selcuk, H., (2005). Decolourization and detoxification of textile wastewater by ozonation and coagulation processes., Dyes Pigments, 64(3), 217–222.
Shu, H. Y.; Huang, C. R., (1994). Decolorization of mono-azo dyes in wastewater by advanced oxidation process: A case study of Acid Red and Acid Yellow 23., Chemosphere, 29(12), 2597–2607.
Tapalad, T.; Neramittagapong, A.; Neramittagapong, S.; Boonmee, M., (2008). Degradation of Congo red dye by ozonation., Chiang Mai J. Sci., 35(1), 63–68.
Uygur, A.; Kok, E., (1999). Decolorization treatments of azo dye wastewatecs including dichlorotriazinyl reactive groups by using advanced oxidation method., Color. Tech., 115(9), 350–354.
Vandavivre, P. C.; Biznchi, R.; Vesrtraete, W., (1998). Treatment and reuse of wastewater from the textile wet-processing industry: review of emerging technologies., J. Chem. Tech. Biotech., 72(4), 289–302.
Wang, C. X.; Yediler, A.; Lienert, D.; Wang, Z. J.; Kettrup, A., (2002). Toxicity evaluation of reactive dyestuffs, auxiliaries and selected effluents in textile finishing industry to luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri., Chemosphere, 46(2), 339–344.
Wei, C.; Ma, C. W., (2000). Quantitative prediction of direct and indirect dye ozonation kinetics., Water Res., 34(12), 3153–3160.
Wu, J.; Wang, T., (2001). Ozonation of aqueous azo dye in a semi-batch reactor., Water Res., 35(4), 1093–1099.
Yediler, A.; Lienert, D.; Koch, M.; Kettrup, A.; Germirli-Babuna, F.; Karatas, O., (2001). Appropriate technologies for the minimization of environmental impact from industrial wastewaters-textile industry, a case study (AZ.: II/72 146), Final Report, Volkswagen-Foundation, Germany.
Zhang, F.; Yediler, A.; Liang, X.; Kettrup, A., (2004). Effect of dyes additives on the ozonation process and oxidation byproducts: a comparative study using hydrolyzed C.I Reactive Red 120., Dyes Pigments, 60(1), 1–7.
Zhiqiao, H.; Shuang, S.; Huamin, Z.; Haiping, Y.; Jianmeng, C., (2007). C.I.Reactive Black 5 decolorization by combined sonolysis and ozonation., Ultrasonics Sonachem., 14(3), 298–304.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Gharbani, P., Tabatabaii, S.M. & Mehrizad, A. Removal of Congo red from textile wastewater by ozonation. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 5, 495–500 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03326046
- Biological factor
- total organic carbon
- chemical oxygen demand
- azo dyes