Skip to main content
Log in

Providing interoperability for air quality in-situ sensors observations using GML technology

  • Published:
International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Geographic information provides the basis for many types of decisions ranging from simple path finding, to the sustainable management of environmental conditions. Producing such information is a time consuming and costly endeavor. Data sharing on the web is an avenue to increase the efficiency of the practices. This paper scientifically examines the new emerging technologies namely, internet, geographic markup language (GML), and observation and measurement models, to construct an interoperable repository for air quality sensors measurements. The paper also elaborates on the design and implementation of a web-based air quality information system (AQIS) for the city of Tehran. In-situ sensors measure ozone (C3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SC2), nitrogen dioxide (NC2) and particulate matters (PM) in polluted metropolitans. Providing real-time air quality information can improve the decisions of the pertinent environmental organizations. Using GML for encoding sensors observations makes it possible to build an interoperable repository that is independent of platforms and vendors. Providing query possibilities based on monitoring stations, sensor names (pollutants), date and time intervals, and spatial query on the AQIS interfaces are the major functions of this system. Although standardized, it was concluded that the use of GML as data format increases the size of GML document. In addition, the developed system provides no map based results for the clients. Therefore, it is required to be improved by adding more GIS functions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  • AQCC, Air Quality Control Company web site report. 2005, available at:

  • Charvát, K. and A. Limpouch, The use of topoL for forestry in the Czech Republic. Proceedings of the 17 th International Cartographic Conference, ICC Barcelona, Spain. 1995

  • Cox, S.,A. Cuthbert and R. Lake, and R. Martell, (eds.). OpenGIS implementation secification #02-009

  • OpenGISâ Geography Markup Language (GML) Implementation Specification, version 2.1.1, 2002

  • De By R. A., R. A. Knippers, Y. Sun, M. C. Ellis, M. J. Kraak, M. J. C. Weir, Y. Georgiadou, M. M. Radwan, C. J. van Westen, W. Kainz and E. J. Sides, Principles of geographic information systems, An introductory textbook, Version of 25th. January 2001, ITC, Netherlands. 232, 2001

  • Groot, R. and J. Mclaughlim, Geospatial data infrastructure. Concepts, Cases, and Good Practice, Oxford university press. 2000

  • USERA, Air Quality Index A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health, United States EPA-454/R-00-005, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, 2005, available at: Air and Radiation

  • Larry, k. The officialXMLSPYhandbook. 0-7645-4964-2 Wiley publishing, Indiana, 330, 2003

    Google Scholar 

  • Percival, G, OGC AS 12, The OpenGIS Abstract Specification Topic 12: OpenGIS Service Architecture Version 4.3, available at, 2002

  • Prins M., Is GML only for Internet GIS, CARIS Geographic Informations Systems BV. In Directions Magazine, 2003

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. A. Alesheikh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Alesheikh, A.A., Oskouei, A.K., Atabi, F. et al. Providing interoperability for air quality in-situ sensors observations using GML technology. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2, 133–140 (2005).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: