Men: good health and high mortality. Sex differences in health and aging


This review examines sex differences in health and survival, with a focus on the Nordic countries. There is a remarkable discrepancy between the health and survival of the sexes: men are physically stronger and have fewer disabilities, but have substantially higher mortality at all ages compared with women: the so-called male-female health-survival paradox. A number of proposed explanations for this paradox are rooted in biological, social, and psychological interpretations. It is likely to be due to multiple causes that include fundamental biological differences between the sexes such as genetic factors, immune system responses, hormones, and disease patterns. Behavioral differences such as risk-taking and reluctance to seek and comply with medical treatment may also play a role. Another consideration is that part of the difference may be due to methodological challenges, such as selective non-participation and under-reporting of health problems, and delayed seeking of treatment by men. The Nordic countries provide a unique opportunity for such studies, as they have good-quality data in their national health registers, which cover the whole population, and a long tradition of high participation rates in surveys.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    Barford A, Dorling D, Smith GD, Shaw M. Life expectancy: women now on top everywhere. BMJ 2006; 332: 808.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Olsen KM, Dahl S-A. Health differences between European countries. Soc Sci Med 2007; 64: 1665–78.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Preston SH. Mortality patterns in national populations: with special reference to recorded causes of death. Studies in population. New York: Academic Press, 1976.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Nathanson CA. Illness and the feminine role: a theoretical review. Soc Sci Med 1975; 9: 57–62.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Wingard DL. The sex differential in morbidity, mortality, and lifestyle. Annu Rev Public Health 1984; 5: 433–58.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Verbrugge LM. Gender and health: an update on hypotheses and evidence. J Health Soc Behav 1985; 26: 156–82.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Waldron I. What do we know about causes of sex differences in mortality? A review of the literature. Population Bulletin of the United Nations 1985: 59–76.

  8. 8.

    Case A, Paxson C. Sex differences in morbidity and mortality. Demography 2005; 42: 189–214.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Kalben BB. Why men die younger: causes of mortality differences by sex. North American Actuarial Journal 2000; 4: 83–111.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Helweg-Larsen K, Juel K. Sex differences in mortality in Denmark during half a century, 1943–92. Scand J Public Health 2000; 28: 214–21.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Rigby JE, Dorling D. Mortality in relation to sex in the affluent world. J Epidemiol Community Health 2007; 61: 159–64.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Gjonca A, Tomassini C, Toson B, Smallwood S. Sex differences in mortality, a comparison of the United Kingdom and other developed countries. Health Stat Q 2005: 6–16.

  13. 13.

    Waldron I. Recent trends in sex mortality ratios for adults in developed countries. Soc Sci Med 1993; 36: 451–62.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Preston SH, Wang H. Sex mortality differences in the United States: the role of cohort smoking patterns. Demography 2006; 43: 631–46.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    HMD. Human Mortality Database. University of California, Berkeley and Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research. Available at

  16. 16.

    WHOMD. WHO Mortality Database. Available at

  17. 17.

    Jylha M, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Jokela J, Heikkinen E. Is self-rated health comparable across cultures and genders? J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 1998; 53: S144–52.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Benyamini Y, Blumstein T, Lusky A, Modan B. Gender differences in the self-rated health-mortality association: is it poor self-rated health that predicts mortality or excellent self-rated health that predicts survival? Gerontologist 2003; 43: 396–405.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Yi Z, Yuzhi L, George LK. Gender differentials of the oldest old in China. Res Aging 2003; 25: 65–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Arber S, Cooper H. Gender differences in health in later life: the new paradox? Soc Sci Med 1999; 48: 61–76.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Leveille SG, Penninx BW, Melzer D, Izmirlian G, Guralnik JM. Sex differences in the prevalence of mobility disability in old age: the dynamics of incidence, recovery, and mortality. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2000; 55: S41–50.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Frederiksen H, Hjelmborg J, Mortensen J, McGue M, Vaupel JW, Christensen K. Age trajectories of grip strength: cross-sectional and longitudinal data among 8,342 Danes aged 46 to 102. Ann Epidemiol 2006; 16: 554–62.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Nybo H, Gaist D, Jeune B, McGue M, Vaupel JW, Christensen K. Functional status and self-rated health in 2,262 nonagenarians: The Danish 1905 Cohort Survey. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001; 49: 601–9.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Hjertestatistik 2004/Heart Statistics 2004. Copenhagen: The Danish Heart Foundation and the Danish National Institute of Public Health.

  25. 25.

    Wingard DL, Cohn BA, Kaplan GA, Cirillo PM, Cohen RD. Sex differentials in morbidity and mortality risk examined by age and cause in the same cohort. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 130: 601–10.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Rich-Edwards JW, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, Buring JE. The primary prevention of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 1758–66.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Macintyre S, Hunt K, Sweeting H. Gender differences in health: are things really as simple as they seem? Soc Sci Med 1996; 42: 617–24.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Whitacre CC. Sex differences in autoimmune disease. Nat Immunol 2001; 2: 777–80.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Gold CH, Malmberg B, McClearn GE, Pedersen NL, Berg S. Gender and health: a study of older unlike-sex twins. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2002; 57: S168–76.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Kardys I, Vliegenthart R, Oudkerk M, Hofman A, Witteman JCM. The female advantage in cardiovascular disease: do vascular beds contribute equally? Am J Epidemiol 2007; 166: 403–12.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Iezzoni LI, Ash AS, Shwartz M, Mackiernan YD. Differences in procedure use, in-hospital mortality, and illness severity by gender for acute myocardial infarction patients: are answers affected by data source and severity measure? Med Care 1997; 35: 158–71.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Shaw M, Maxwell R, Rees K, et al. Gender and age inequity in the provision of coronary revascularisation in England in the 1990s: is it getting better? Soc Sci Med 2004; 59: 2499–507.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Bowling A, Bond M, McKee D, et al. Equity in access to exercise tolerance testing, coronary angiography, and coronary artery bypass grafting by age, sex and clinical indications. Heart 2001; 85: 680–6.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Anand SS, Xie CC, Mehta S, Franzosi MG, et al. Differences in the management and prognosis of women and men who suffer from acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 46: 1845–51.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Vaccarino V, Lin ZQ, Kasl SV, et al. Gender differences in recovery after coronary artery bypass surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 41: 307–14.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Chambers TA, Bagai A, Ivascu N. Current trends in coronary artery disease in women. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2007; 20: 75–82.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Kriegsman DMW, Penninx BWJH, Van Eijk JTM, Boeke AJP, Deeg DJH. Self-reports and general practitioner information on the presence of chronic diseases in community dwelling elderly: a study on the accuracy of patients’ self-reports and on determinants of inaccuracy. J Clin Epidemiol 1996; 49: 1407–17.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Okura Y, Urban LH, Mahoney DW, Jacobsen SJ, Rodeheffer RJ. Agreement between self-report questionnaires and medical record data was substantial for diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke but not for heart failure. J Clin Epidemiol 2004; 57: 1096–103.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Zhu K, McKnight B, Stergachis A, Daling JR, Levine RS. Comparison of self-report data and medical records data: results from a case-control study on prostate cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1999; 28: 409–17.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Lampe FC, Walker M, Lennon LT, Whincup PH, Ebrahim S. Validity of a self-reported history of doctor-diagnosed angina. J Clin Epidemiol 1999; 52: 73–81.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Caskie GI, Willis SL, Warner Schaie K, Zanjani FA. Congruence of medication information from a brown bag data collection and pharmacy records: findings from the Seattle longitudinal study. Exp Aging Res 2006; 32: 79–103.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Boudreau DM, Daling JR, Malone KE, Gardner JS, Blough DK, Heckbert SR. A validation study of patient interview data and pharmacy records for antihypertensive, statin, and antidepressant medication use among older women. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 159: 308–17.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Van den Brandt PA, Petri H, Dorant E, Goldbohm RA, Van de Crommert S. Comparison of questionnaire information and pharmacy data on drug use. Pharm Weekbl Sci 1991; 13: 91–6.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    West SL, Savitz DA, Koch G, Strom BL, Guess HA, Hartzema A. Recall accuracy for prescription medications: self-report compared with database information. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142: 1103–12.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Nybo H, Gaist D, Jeune B, et al. The Danish 1905 Cohort: a genetic-epidemiological nationwide survey. J Aging Health 2001; 13: 32–46.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Christensen K, Holm NV, McGue M, Corder L, Vaupel JW. A Danish population-based twin study on general health in the elderly. J Aging Health 1999; 11: 49–64.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Osler M, Schroll M. Differences between participants and non-participants in a population study on nutrition and health in the elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr 1992; 46: 289–95.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Drivsholm T, Eplov LF, Davidsen M, et al. Representativeness in population-based studies: a detailed description of non-response in a Danish cohort study. Scand J Public Health 2006; 34: 623–31.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    von Strauss E, Fratiglioni L, Jorm AF, Viitanen M, Winblad B. Attitudes and participation of the elderly in population surveys: data from a longitudinal study on aging and dementia in Stockholm. J Clin Epidemiol 1998; 51: 181–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Chatfield MD, Brayne CE, Matthews FE. A systematic literature review of attrition between waves in longitudinal studies in the elderly shows a consistent pattern of dropout between differing studies. J Clin Epidemiol 2005; 58: 13–9.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Van Loon AJM, Tijhuis M, Picavet HSJ, Surtees PG, Ormel J. Survey non-response in the Netherlands: effects on prevalence estimates and associations. Ann Epidemiol 2003; 13: 105–10.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Korkeila K, Suominen S, Ahvenainen J, et al. Non-response and related factors in a nation-wide health survey. Eur J Epidemiol 2001; 17: 991–9.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Jacomb P, Jorm A, Korten A, Christensen H, Henderson AS. Predictors of refusal to participate: a longitudinal health survey of the elderly in Australia. BMC Public Health 2002; 2: 4.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Etter J-F, Perneger TV. Analysis of non-response bias in a mailed health survey. J Clin Epidemiol 1997; 50: 1123–8.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Carlsson F, Merlo J, Lindstroem M, Oestergren P-O, Lithman T. Representativity of a postal public health questionnaire survey in Sweden, with special reference to ethnic differences in participation. Scand J Public Health 2006; 34: 132–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Lamers LM. Medical consumption of respondents and non-respondents to a mailed health survey. Eur J Public Health 1997; 7: 267–71.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Kjoller M, Thoning H. Characteristics of non-response in the Danish Health Interview Surveys, 1987–1994. Eur J Public Health 2005; 15: 528–35.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Hoeymans N, Feskens EJM, Van Den Bos GAM, Kromhout D. Non-response bias in a study of cardiovascular diseases, functional status and self-rated health among elderly men. Age Ageing 1998; 27: 35–40.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Boshuizen HC, Viet AL, Picavet HSJ, Botterweck A, van Loon AJM. Non-response in a survey of cardiovascular risk factors in the Dutch population: determinants and resulting biases. Public Health 2006; 120: 297–308.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    van den Akker M, Buntinx F, Metsemakers JF, Knottnerus JA. Morbidity in responders and non-responders in a register-based population survey. Fam Pract 1998; 15: 261–3.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Grotzinger KM, Stuart BC, Ahern F. Assessment and control of nonresponse bias in a survey of medicine use by the elderly. Med Care 1994; 32: 989–1003.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Reijneveld SA, Stronks K. The impact of response bias on estimates of health care utilization in a metropolitan area: the use of administrative data. Int J Epidemiol 1999; 28: 1134–40.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Nathanson CA. Sex roles as variables in the interpretation of morbidity data: a methodological critique. Int J Epidemiol 1978; 7: 253–62.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Magaziner J, Zimmerman SI, Gruber-Baldini AL, Hebel JR, Fox KM. Proxy reporting in five areas of functional status: comparison with self-reports and observations of performance. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 146: 418–28.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Yasuda N, Zimmerman S, Hawkes WG, Gruber-Baldini AL, Hebel R, Magaziner J. Concordance of proxy-perceived change and measured change in multiple domains of function in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52: 1157–62.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Austad S. Why women live longer than men: sex differences in longevity. Gend Med 2006; 3: 79–92.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Waldron I. Contributions of biological and behavioral factors to changing sex differences in ischemic heart disease mortality. In: Lopez AD, Caselli G, Valkonen T, eds. Adult Mortality in Developed Countries: From Description to Explanation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995: 167–78.

    Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    McEwen BS, Alves SE. Estrogen actions in the central nervous system. Endocr Rev 1999; 20: 279–307.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Chlebowski RT, Hendrix SL, Langer RD, et al. Influence of estrogen plus progestin on breast cancer and mammography in healthy postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial. JAMA 2003; 289: 3243–53.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2002; 288: 321–33.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Manson JE, Allison MA, Rossouw JE, et al. Estrogen therapy and coronary-artery calcification. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 2591–602.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Manson JE, Bassuk SS. Invited Commentary: Hormone therapy and risk of coronary heart disease: why renew the focus on the early years of menopause? Am J Epidemiol 2007; 166: 511–7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Barrett-Connor E. Hormones and heart disease in women: the timing hypothesis. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 166: 506–10.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Vastag B. Many questions, few answers for testosterone replacement therapy. JAMA 2003; 289: 971–2.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Nair KS, Rizza RA, O’Brien P, et al. DHEA in elderly women and DHEA or testosterone in elderly men. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 1647–59.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Owens IPF. Ecology and evolution: sex differences in mortality rate. Science 2002; 297: 2008–9.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Crimmins EM, Finch CE. Commentary: Do older men and women gain equally from improving childhood conditions? Int J Epidemiol 2006; 35: 1270–1.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Christensen K, Kristiansen M, Hagen-Larsen H, et al. X-linked genetic factors regulate hematopoietic stem-cell kinetics in females. Blood 2000; 95: 2449–51.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Deeg DJH, Hofman A, van Zonneveld RJ. The association between change in cognitive function and longevity in Dutch elderly. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 132: 973–82.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Beckett LA, Brock DB, Lemke JH, et al. Analysis of change in self-reported physical function among older persons in four population studies. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143: 766–78.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Laukka EJ, MacDonald SWS, Backman L. Contrasting cognitive trajectories of impending death and preclinical dementia in the very old. Neurology 2006; 66: 833–8.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Costanza M, Salamun J, Lopez A, Morabia A. Gender differentials in the evolution of cigarette smoking habits in a general European adult population from 1993–2003. BMC Public Health 2006; 6: 130.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA 2006; 295: 1549–55.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Berg C, Rosengren A, Aires N, Lappas G, et al. Trends in overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2002 in Goteborg, West Sweden. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2005; 29: 916–24.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Wardle J, Haase AM, Steptoe A, Nillapun M, Jonwutiwes K, Bellisle F. Gender differences in food choice: the contribution of health beliefs and dieting. Ann Behav Med 2004; 27: 107–16.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Prattala R, Paalanen L, Grinberga D, Helasoja V, Kasmel A, Petkeviciene J. Gender differences in the consumption of meat, fruit and vegetables are similar in Finland and the Baltic countries. Eur J Public Health 2006: ckl265.

  87. 87.

    Simpson EEA, O’Connor JM, Livingstone MBE, et al. Health and lifestyle characteristics of older European adults: the ZENITH study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005; 59: S13–21.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Post W, Bielak LF, Ryan KA, et al. Determinants of coronary artery and aortic calcification in the Old Order Amish. Circulation 2007; 115: 717–24.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Lyon JL, Wetzler HP, Gardner JW, Klauber MR, Williams RR. Cardiovascular mortality in Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah, 1969–1971. Am J Epidemiol 1978; 108: 357–66.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Merrill RM, Lyon JL. Cancer incidence among Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah (United States) 1995–1999. Prev Med 2005; 40: 535–41.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Ladwig KH, Marten-Mittag B, Formanek B, Dammann G. Gender differences of symptom reporting and medical health care utilization in the German population. Eur J Epidemiol 2000; 16: 511–8.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Green CA, Pope CR. Gender, psychosocial factors and the use of medical services: a longitudinal analysis. Soc Sci Med 1999; 48: 1363–72.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Verbrugge LM, Wingard DL. Sex differentials in health and mortality. Women Health 1987; 12: 103–45.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Kroenke K, Spitzer RL. Gender differences in the reporting of physical and somatoform symptoms. Psychosom Med 1998; 60: 150–5.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Hunt K, Lewars H, Emslie C, Batty GD. Decreased risk of death from coronary heart disease amongst men with higher ‘femininity’ scores: a general population cohort study. Int J Epidemiol 2007; 36: 612–20.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Parsons T, Fox R. Illness, therapy, and the modern urban American family. Journal of Social Issues 1952; 8: 2–4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    Macintyre S, Ford G, Hunt K. Do women “over-report” morbidity? Men’s and women’s responses to structured prompting on a standard question on long standing illness. Soc Sci Med 1999; 48: 89–98.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Feeney A, North F, Head J, Canner R, Marmot M. Socioeconomic and sex differentials in reason for sickness absence from the Whitehall II Study. Occup Environ Med 1998; 55: 91–8.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Verbrugge LM. Multiple roles and physical health of women and men. J Health Soc Behav 1983; 24: 16–30.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Waldron I. Sex differences in human mortality: the role of genetic factors. Soc Sci Med 1983; 17: 321–33.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Redondo-Sendino A, Guallar-Castillon P, Banegas JR, Rodriguez-Artalejo F. Gender differences in the utilization of health-care services among the older adult population of Spain. BMC Public Health 2006; 6: 155.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Bertakis KD, Azari R, Helms LJ, Callahan EJ, Robbins JA. Gender differences in the utilization of health care services. J Fam Pract 2000; 49: 147–52.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Juel K, Christensen K. Are men seeking medical advice too late? Contacts to general practitioners and hospital admissions in Denmark 2005. J Public Health 2007: 1–2.

  104. 104.

    Galdas PM, Cheater F, Marshall P. Men and health help-seeking behaviour: literature review. J Adv Nurs 2005; 49: 616–23.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    Roe CM, McNamara AM, Motheral BR. Gender- and age-related prescription drug use patterns. Ann Pharmacother 2002; 36: 30–9.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    Jorgensen T, Johansson S, Kennerfalk A, Wallander MA, Svardsudd K. Prescription drug use, diagnoses, and healthcare utilization among the elderly. Ann Pharmacother 2001; 35: 1004–9.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. 107.

    Linjakumpu T, Hartikainen S, Klaukka T, Veijola J, Kivela S-L, Isoaho R. Use of medications and polypharmacy are increasing among the elderly. J Clin Epidemiol 2002; 55: 809–17.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anna Oksuzyan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Oksuzyan, A., Juel, K., Vaupel, J.W. et al. Men: good health and high mortality. Sex differences in health and aging. Aging Clin Exp Res 20, 91–102 (2008).

Download citation


  • Health
  • mortality
  • Nordic countries
  • review
  • sex differences