AIM: To evaluate the effect of non-setting calcium hydroxide (NSCH) on the hardness and elastic modulus of dentine from extracted permanent premolar human teeth. METHODS: 30 freshly extracted single rooted human premolar teeth were decoronated and the roots then sectioned longitudinally into equal halves. In the experimental group a thin layer of NSCH was applied whilst the control group had no medicament. After 1, 3 and 6 months, nanoindentation was used to assess dentine hardness and the modulus of elasticity. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize the depth of penetration of NSCH into the dentinal tubules. RESULTS: SEM images showed that there were no structural changes in the dentine slabs that had NSCH application after 1, 3 or even 6 months. However, penetration of NSCH into the dentine tubules was seen at both 3 and 6 months with a significant reduction in the hardness of dentine observed at 3 (p<0.02) and 6 months (p<0.01). The modulus of elasticity was significantly lower (p<0.01) at 6 months. CONCLUSION: It appears that there is a significant reduction in the hardness of dentine with increasing periods of calcium hydroxide application. Prolonged application of NSCH could have a detrimental effect on dentine, making the dentine more prone to fracture.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Al-Jundi SH. Type of treatment, prognosis and estimation of time spent to manage dental trauma in late presentation cases at a dental teaching hospital: a longitudinal and retrospective study. Dental Traumatol 2004;20:1–5.
Andreasen JO, Farik B, Munksgaard EC. Long-term calcium hydroxide as a root canal dressing may increase risk of root fracture. Dental Traumatol, 2002;18:134–7.
Andreasen JO, Bakland LK, Matras RC. Andreasen F M. traumatic intrusion of permanent teeth part 1. An epidemiological study of 216 intruded permanent teeth. Dental Traumatol, 2006a;22:83–89.
Andreasen JO, Munksgaard EC, Bakland LK. Comparison of fracture resistance in root canals of immature sheep teeth after filling with calcium hydroxide or MTA. Dental Traumatol, 2006b;18:134–137.
Angkera L, Nockoldsb C, Swainac M, Kilpatrickd N.Correlating the mechanical properties to the mineral content of carious dentine—a comparative study using an ultra-micro indentation system (UMIS) and SEM-BSE signals. Anhs Oral Bial 2004; 49:369–378.
Angker L, Swain MV. Nanoindentation: Aplication to dental hard tissue investigations. J Material Research, 2006; 21:1893–1905.
Balooch M, Wu-Magidi IC, Balazs A, et al. Viscoelastic properties of demineralized human dentin measured in water with atomic force microscope (AFM)-based indentation. J Biomed Material Res, 1998;40:539–543.
Chng HK, Palamara JE, Messer, HH. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate on biomechanical properties of human dentine. J Endodont, 2002;28:62–67.
Cvek M. Prognosis of luxated non-vital maxillary incisors treated with calcium hydroxide and filled with gutta-percha. Endodont Dental Traumatol, 1992 8:45–55.
Doyon GE, Dumsha T, Von Fraunhofer JA. Fracture Resistance of Human Root Dentine Exposed to Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide. J Endodont, 2005;31:895–897.
Frank AL. Therapy for the divergent pulpless tooth by continued apical formation. J Amer Dent Assoc, 1966;72:87–93.
Habelitz S, Marshall GW, Balooch M and Marshal SJ. Nanoindentation and storage of teeth. J Biomaterial Res, 2000;35:995–998.
Hermann BW. (1920) Calcium Hydroxide as a medicament for the treatment and filling of root canals (German). Dissertation. University of Wurzburg, Germany. 1920.
Kaiser HJ. Mangement of wide open canals with calcium hydroxide. Twenty-first annual meeting of American Association of Endodontics, USA. Washington, DC, 1964.
Kinirons MJ, Srinivasan V, Welbury RR, Finucane D. A study in two centres of variations in the time of apical barrier detection and barrier position in non-vital immature permanent incisors. Int J Paediatr Dent, 2001;11:447–451.
Marshall G, Habelitzl S, Gallagher R, et al. Nanomechanical Properties of Hydrated Carious Human Dentin. J Dent Res, 2001;80:1768–1771.
Oliver WC Pharr G.M. An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments. J Material Search, 1992;7:1564–1583.
Pérez F, Franchi M, Péli JF. Effect of calcium hydroxide form and placement on root dentine pH. Int Endodo J, 2001;34:417–423.
Rosenberg B, Murray PE, Namerow K. The effect of calcium hydroxide root filling on dentin fracture strength. Dental Traumatol, 2007;23:26–29.
Sim TP Knowles Y, Shelton J, Gulabivala K. Effect of sodium hypochlorite on mechanical properties of dentine and tooth surface strain. J Material Res, 2001;34:120–132.
Toparli M Koksal N. Hardness and yield strength of dentin from simulated nano-indentation tests Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine. 2005;77:253–257
White JD, Lacefield WR, Chavers LS, Eleazer PD. The effect of three commonly used endodontic materials on the strength and hardness of root dentin. J Endodo, 2002;28:828–830.
Yoldas O, Dogan C, Seydaoglu G. The effect of two different calcium hydroxide combinations on root dentine microhardness. Int Endo J, 2004;37:828–831.
Zmener O, Pameijer CH, Banegas G. An in vitro study of the pH of three calcium hydroxide dressing materials. Dental Traumatol 2007;23:21–25.
About this article
Cite this article
Twati, W.A., Wood, D.J., Liskiewicz, T.W. et al. An Evaluation of the Effect of Non-Setting Calcium Hydroxide on Human Dentine: A pilot Study. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 10, 104–109 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03321610
- non-setting calcium hydroxide