AIM: To assess the oral health status of autistic children in Chennai. DESIGN AND METHODS: Oral health status was assessed for 483 children with autism, solicited from special education schools, autistic child centres and therapy centres. Conditions assessed were plaque accumulation, gingival health, dental caries, malocclusion, developmental anomalies, oral injuries and restorations. STATISTICS: Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests of significance were used to compare groups. Proportions testwas used to compare the significance of the parameters between boys and girls. RESULTS: Autistic children with primary dentition showed significantly higher incidence of dental caries (24%), when compared to other oral conditions. Children with mixed dentition had more gingivitis (50%) and children with permanent dentition had more gingivitis (48.96%) and malocclusion (71.15%). All the oral conditions were seen more in boys than girls. CONCLUSION: Autistic children have significantly poor oral hygiene and higher incidence of malocclusion and dental caries when compared to other oral conditions.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Policy on use of a caries-risk assessment tool (CAT) for infants, children, and adolescents. Reference Manual 2007–08. Pediatr Dent 2007; 29: 29–33.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th edition, 2000.
Bertrand J, Mars A, Boyle C. et al. Prevalence of autism in a United States population: The Brick Township, New Jersey, investigation. Pediatrics 2001; 108:1155–61.
Centers for disease control and prevention (CDC). Mental health in the United States: parental report of diagnosed autism in children aged 4–17 years — United States, 2003–2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006; 55: 481–6.
Centers for disease control and prevention. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders — autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, MMWR Surveill Summ. 2007; 56(No.55–1).
DeNoon DJ. Autism and the environment. Env Health Persp 2006; 114: A396.
Desai M, Messer LB, Calache H. A study of the dental treatment needs of children with disabilities in Melbourne, Australia. Aust Dent J 2001; 46: 41–50.
Fahlvik-Planefeldt C, Herrstrom P. Dental care of autistic children within the non-specialized Public Dental Service. Swed Dent J 2001; 25:113–8.
Fombonne E. Epidemiological surveys of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: an update. J Autism Dev Disord 2003; 33: 365–82.
Friedlander AH, Yagiela JA, Paterno VI, Mahler ME. The neuropathology, medical management and dental implications of autism. J Am Dent Assoc 2006; 137:1517–27.
Gillberg C, Coleman M. The biology of the Autistic Syndromes. London: Mac Kieth Press, 1992.
Jamain S, Quach H, Betancur C. Mutations of the x-linked genes encoding neurologins NLGN3 and NLGN4 are associated with autism. Nat Genet 2003; 34: 27–9.
Kanner L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous child 1943; 2: 217–50.
Liu J, Nyholt DR, Magnussen P. A genome wide screen for autism susceptibility loci. Am J Hum Genet 2001; 69: 327–40.
Lowe O, Lindemann R. Assessment of the autism patient’s dental needs and ability to undergo dental examination. J Dent Child 1985; 52: 29–35.
Medina AC, Sogbe R, Gomez-Rey Am, Mata M. Factitial oral lesions in an autistic pediatric patient. Int J Pediatr Dent 2003; 13:130–7.
Onyeaso CO. Orthodontic treatment need of mentally handicapped children in Ibaden, Nigeria, according to the Dental Aesthetic Index. J Dent Child 2003; 70:159–63.
Peeters T, Gillberg C. Autism: Medical and Educational aspects, 2nd edn. London: Whurr Publishers, 1999.
Rean JM, Mauriello SM, Kulinski RF. Management of the autistic patient by the dental hygienist. J Pract Hyg 1999; 8: 19–23.
Reichenberg A, Gross R, Weiser M. Advancing paternal age and autism. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63:1026–32.
Saemundsson SR, Roberts M. Oral self-injurious behaviour in the developmentally disabled: Review and a case. ASDC J Dent Child 1997; 64: 205–9.
Shaner JW, Kimmes N, Saini T, Edwards P. “Meth Mouth:” Rampant caries in methamphetamine abusers. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2006 Mar; 20(3): 146–50.
Shao Y, Wolpert CM, Raiford Kl. Genomic screen and follow up analysis for autistic disorder. Am J Med Genet 2002; 114:99–105.
Shapira J, Mann J, Tamari I. Oral health status and dental needs of an autistic population of children and young adults. Spec Care Dentist 1989; 9: 38–41.
Shelton JF, Tancredi DJ, Hertz-Picciotto I. Independent and dependent contributions of advanced maternal and paternal ages to autism risk. Autism Research, February 2010.
Starks D, Market G, Miller C, Greenbaum J. Day to day dental care: A parent’s guide. Exceptional Parent. 1985; 13–7.
Surabian SR. Developmental disabilities: Epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and autism. J Calif Dent Assoc 2001; 29:424–32.
Suwannee L, Pattarawadee L, Pongstorn P, Sutasinee K. Periodontal status and orthodontic treatment need of autistic children. World J Orthod 2010; 11: 256–61.
Tharapiwattananon T. Autistic child and dental management. Cu Dent J 1994; 17:1–10.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Oral health in America: a report of the Surgeon General, Rockville (MD); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health; 2000.
Volkmar FR, Wiesner LA. Healthcare for children on the autism spectrum: A guide to behavioural issues. Bethesda (MD): Woodbine House; 2004.
About this article
Cite this article
Rekha, C.V., Arangannal, P. & Shahed, H. Oral health status of children with autistic disorder in Chennai. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 13, 126–131 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03262858
- oral health
- dental caries