Short Communication: In vitro assessment of Erosive Potential of Energy Drinks

Abstract

AIM: This in vitro study was to evaluate the endogenous pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids content (TSSC) and nonreducing sugars of energy drinks. METHODS: Nine energy drinks (Bad Boy Power Drink, Red Bull, Red Bull Sugar Free, Flying Horse, Burn, Night Power, Flash Power, Flying Horse Light and 220V) were evaluated by a randomised experiment with 3 repetitions on each sample. pH analysis performed by potentiometry and buffering capacity was assessed by dilution of each drink. Increments of 0.1 N KOH were titrated until neutrality reached. TSSC readings were performed by Brix refractometry using an Abbé refractometer. RESULTS: pH values ranged from 1.52 (Flash Power) to 3.20 (Red Bull) and all drinks showed pH 5.5. Titratable acidity values ranged from 0.56 (220V) to 1.04 (Bad Boy Power Drink). Flying Horse Light presented the lowest TSSC content (1.66%) and Flying Horse presented the highest (12.58%). Non-reducing sugars values ranged from 0.00% (Red Bull Sugar Free and Flying Horse Light) to 54.33% (Flying Horse). CONCLUSION: The energy drinks evaluated have a high erosive potential, as they present low pH and a high non-reducing sugar content.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Alford C, Cox H, Wescott R. The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood. Amino Acids 2001;21(2):139–150.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Arlington, 1995.1141p.

  3. Ballistreri MC, Corradi-Webster CM. Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students. Rev Latino-Am Enfermagem 2008;16:558–564.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Birkhed D. Sugar content, acidity and effect on plaque pH of fruit juices, fruit drinks, carbonated beverages and sports drinks. Caries Res 1984;18(2):120–127.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Carvalho JM, Maia GA, Sousa PHM, Rodrigues S. Major compounds profiles in energetic drinks: caffeine, taurine, guarana, and glucoronolactone. Rev Inst Adolfo Lutz 2006;65(2):78–85.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Clauson KA, Shields KM, McQueen CE, Persad N. Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks. J Am Pharm Assoc 2008;48(3):e55–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Ehlen LA, Marshall TA, Qian F, Wefel JS, Warren JJ. Acidic beverages increase the risk of in vitro tooth erosion. Nutr Res 2008;28(5):299–303.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Kitchens M, Owens BM. Effect of carbonated beverages, coffee, sports and high energy drinks, and bottled water on the in vitro erosion characteristics of dental enamel. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2007;31(3):153–159.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Llena C, Forner L, Baca P. Anticariogenicity of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate: a review of the literature. J Contemp Dent Pract 2009;10(3):1–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Lussi A, Schaffner M, Jaeggi T. Dental erosion — diagnosis and prevention in children and adults. Int Dent J 2007;57:385–398.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Malinauskas BM, Aeby VG, Overton RF, Carpenter-Aeby T, Barber-Heidal K. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students. NutrJ 2007;6(35):1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Matumoto MSS. In vitro evaluation of changes on enamel surface of permanent teeth submitted to energy drinks action. [Thesis, Portugese]. São Paulo: Universidade de São Paulo, 2008.

  13. Ramalingam L, Messer LB, Reynolds EC. Adding casein phosphopeptideamorphous calcium phosphate to sports drinks to eliminate in vitro erosion. Pediatr Dent 2005;27(1):61–67.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Reissig CJ, Strain EC, Griffiths RR. Caffeinated energy drinks — a growing problem. Drug Alcohol Depend 2009;99(1–3):1–10.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Seow WK, Thong KM. Erosive effects of common beverages on extracted premolar teeth. Aust Dent J 2005;50:(3):173–178.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Prof. A. L. Cavalcanti.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Cavalcanti, A.L., Costa Oliveira, M., Florentino, V.G. et al. Short Communication: In vitro assessment of Erosive Potential of Energy Drinks. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 11, 253–255 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03262757

Download citation

Keywords

  • beverages
  • drinking
  • tooth erosion
  • hydrogen-ion concentration
  • diet