Background: The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry has called for a series of evidence-based statements to inform their guidelines on the behavioural management of the child patient. Communication between dentist, parent and child based upon scientifically robust research evidence was felt to be central to this request in order to provide empathetic and child-centred care for children and their parents attending for dental health care. Review process: Shekelle and colleagues  devised a series of steps to develop an evidence-based clinical guideline. This framework allows first, the identification and refinement of the subject area and secondly, the identification and assessment of the evidence-base. Four areas of communication were identified as being of central importance. These were identification of the mother-child dyad; affective communication skills; problem solving and negotiation skills. Conclusion: It was recommended that paediatric dentists should become knowledgeable and competent in these skills in order to provide patient-centred care for the children and parents attending their clinics for dental treatment.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Adair S: Behavior management conference panel I report—Rationale for behavior management techniques in pediatric dentistry Pediatr Dent 2004;26:167–170.
Aldred C, Green J, Adams C: A new social communication intervention for children with autism: pilot randomised controlled treatment study suggesting effectiveness. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2004;45:1420–1430.
Barlow J, Parsons J. Group-based parent-training programmes for improving emotional and behavioural adjustment in 0–3 year old children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD003680. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003680
Barrett P, Rapee R, Dadda M, Ryan S: Family enhancement of cognitive style in anxious and aggressive children. J Abnormal Child Psychol 1996;24:187–203.
Black B, Logan A: Links between communication patterns in mother-child, father-child, and child-peer interactions and children’s social status. Child Develop 1995;66:255–271.
Blinkhorn A, Kay E, Atkinson J, Millar K: Advice for the dental team on coping with the nervous child. Dental UpDate 1990:415-419.
Bloomfield L, Kendall S, Applin L. et al: A qualitative study exploring the experiences and views of mothers, health visitors and family support centre workers on the challenges and difficulties of parenting. Health Social Care in the Community 2005;13:46–55.
Burke F, Freeman R: Preparing for dental practice. Oxford., Oxford University Press, 2004.
Carson P: Paediatric sedation and dental general anaesthesia: choices for the future. Belfast, Queen’s University of Belfast, 1998.
Carson P, Freeman R: Tell-show-do: Reducing anticipatory anxiety in emergency paediatric dental patients. Int J Health Educ Promotion 1998;36:87–90.
Chadwick B: Non-pharmacological behaviour management.2002 http://www.bspd.co.uk/publications.html.
Chorpita B, Albano A, Barlow D: Cognitive processing in children: Relation to anxiety and family influences. J Clinic Child Psychol 1996;25:170–176.
Clayman M, Wissow L: Pediatric residents’ response to ambiguous words about child discipline and behavior. Parent Education and Counseling 2004;55:16–21.
Coren E, Barlow J. Individual and group-based parenting programmes for improving psychosocial outcomes for teenage parents and their children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD002964. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002964
Corkey B, Freeman R: Predictors of dental anxiety in six-year-old children: findings from a pilot study. ASCD J Dent Child 1994;61:267–271
Cox E, Smith M, Brown R, Fitzpatrick M: Effect of gender and visit length on particpation in pediatric visits. Patient Education and Counseling 2007;65:320–328.
Drummond J, Fleming D, McDonald L, Kysela G: Randomized controlled trial of a family problem-solving intervention. Clinic Nurs Res 2005;14:57–80.
Dumas J, LaFreniere P, Serketich W: “Balance of power”: a transactional analysis of control in mother-child dyads involving socially competent, aggressive, and anxious children. J Abnormal Psycholology. 1995;104:104–113.
Feigal R: Guiding and managing the child dental patient: a fresh look at old pedagogy. J Dent Educ 2001; 65:1369–1377.
Finset A: Non-verbal communication — an important key to in-depth understanding of provider-patient interaction. Patient Education and Counseling 2007;66:127–128.
Freeman R: The psychology of dental patient care. London., British Dental Journal., 2000;27–35
Freeman R: An anxious child attends: a psychoanalytic explanation of children’s responses to dental treatment. Int J Paediatr Dent 2007; 17:407–418
Freud A: The Role of Bodily Illness in the Mental Life of Children. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 1952;7: 69–81.
Gross D, Fogg L, Webster-Stratton C, et al: Parent training of toddlers in day care in low-income urban communities. J Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2003;71:261–278.
Hamburg D, Hamburg B: Learning to live together. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2004.
Holloway P, Swallow J: Child Dental Health, ed 2nd. Bristol, Wright, 1975. Hummel R, Gross A: Socially anxious children: An observational study of parent-child interaction. Child and Family Behavior Therapy 2001; 23:19–41.
Hull P, Humphris GM: The effect of supplying patient dental anxiety information to dentists. J Dent Res 84(Spec Iss B): 234,2005.
Johnson G, Kent G, Leather J: Strengthening the parent-child relationship: a review of family interventions and their use in medical settings. Child-Care Health and Development 2005;31:25–32.
Lewin SA, Skea ZC, Entwistle V, Zwarenstein M, Dick J. Interventions for providers to promote a patient-centred approach in clinical consultations. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003267. DOI: 10.1 002/14651858.CD003267.
Portnoy S: Patient co-operation—how can it be improved? Brit J Ortho 1997;24:340–342.
Prussing E, Sobo E, Dennis K, Kurtin P: Communicating with pediatricians about complementary/alternative medicine: perspectives from parents of children with Down syndrome. Ambulatory Pediatr 2004;4:488–494.
Rollnick S, Mason P, Butler C (eds): Health behaviour change: a guide for practitioners. ed. Edinburgh., Churchill Livingstone., 2000.
Roter D, Frankel R, Hall J, Sluyter D: The expression of emotion through nonverbal beahviour in medical visits. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21:S28–S34.
Sermet O: Emotional and medical factors in child dental anxiety. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1974;15:313–321.
Shaw O: Dental anxiety in children. Brit Dent J 1975;139:134–139.
Shekelle P, Woolf S, Eccles M, Grimshaw J: Clinical guidelines: developing guidelines. Brit Med J 1999;318:593–618.
Shields L, Hunter J, Hall J: Parents’ and staff’s perceptions of parental needs during a child’s admission to hospital: an English perspective. J Child Health Care 2004;8:9–33.
Sobo E: Parents’ perceptions of pediatric day surgery risks: unforeseeable complications, or avoidable mistakes? Social Science and Medicine 2005;60:2341–2350.
Todes C: The child and the dentist: a psychoanalytical view. British Journal of Medical Psychology 1972;45:45–55.
Wassmer E, Minnaar G, Abdel Aal N, Atkinson M, et al: How do paediatricians communicate with children and parents? Acta Paediar 2004;93:1501–1506.
About this article
Cite this article
Freeman, R. Communicating with children and parents: recommendations for a child-parent-centred approach for paediatric dentistry. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 9, 16–22 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03262651
- parent-child dyad
- behavioural management