Skip to main content

Metal Recovery from Scrap and Waste

Abstract

The depletion of high grade ores and accumulation of huge quantities of metallic scrap and metallurgical wastes have generated significant interest in their processing. In this paper, both pyrometallurgical, as well as hydrometal-lurgical, methods for metal recovery from scrap and wastes (viz., slag, dusts, aqueous effluents, sludge and residues) are reviewed. Scrap recycling and the processing of metallurgical wastes will pollute the environment to a lesser extent and consume less energy compared to the primary metal production. Reprocessing metallurgical waste (viz., slag, red mud, etc.) serves a social objective and ensures raw materials conservation. Research trends reveal that hydrometallurgy may play a dominant role in the waste treatment. Recently developed processes like continuous ion exchange and fluidized bed electrolysis may be used in the future for recovering metals from dilute solutions.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. M.B. Bever, Conservation and Recycling, 1 (1976) 137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. H.S. Ray, R. Sridhar and K.P. Abraham, Extraction of Nonferrous Metals, Affiliated East-West Press, New Delhi, 1985.

    Google Scholar 

  3. J.J. Moore, International Metals Review, 23 (1978) 241.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. R.F. Testin, J. Metals, 33(9) (1981) 21.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Alcoa Technology Marketing Division, Report No. 1, June 1972, Pittsburgh.

  6. T.A. Sullivan, R.L. De Beauchamp and E.L. Singleton, U.S. Bureau of Mines, RI–7617, 1972.

    Google Scholar 

  7. V.A. Zeerleder, Technology of Light Metals, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1949.

    Google Scholar 

  8. F. Johannsen and W. Liebe, Z. Erzberg. Metallhuttenwes, 16 (1963) 558.

    Google Scholar 

  9. F. Johannsen and H. Stockhaus, Z. Erzberg. Metallhuttenwes, 16 (1963) 227.

    Google Scholar 

  10. S.H. Langer, T.D. Kaun and M.A. Nametz, J. Metals, 28 (7) (1976) 9.

    Google Scholar 

  11. S. Bergsoe, and N. Gram, Proceedings Lead-Zinc-Tin TMS-AIME World Symposium on Metallurgy and Environment Control, J.M. Cigan, T.S. Mackey and J.J. O’Keefe Eds., Feb. 24–28, 2980, Las Vegas, p. 1023.

  12. J.D. Taylor and P.J. Moor, ibid, p. 1003.

    Google Scholar 

  13. R.D. Prengaman, ibid, p. 985.

    Google Scholar 

  14. E. Becker, M. Knothe and J. Lobel, Hydromet., 11 (1983) 265.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. R. Ambrose and B.W. Dunning, Proceedings Accomplishments in Waste Utilization, Seventh Mineral Waste Utilization Symposium, U.S. Bureau of Mines, Oct. 20–21, 1980, Chicago.

    Google Scholar 

  16. G.A. Lorenzo and T.N. Hendrickson, Conference Proceedings Precious Metals, June 2–5, 1981, Providence R.L, Headington Hill Hall, Oxford, Pergamon, 1982.

  17. W. Kunda, Hydromet., 7 (1981) 77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. B. Kolodziej and Z. Adamski, Hydromet., 12 (1984) 117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. N. Singh, K.N. Srivastava, R.M. Krishnan and B.R. Nijhavan, Proceedings Symposium Utilization of Metallurgical Wastes, March 10–13, 1964, NML, Jamshedpur, India, p. 192.

    Google Scholar 

  20. J.G. Peacey and A. Pelletier, presented at CIM 19th Annual Conference, Aug. 24–28, 1980, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

    Google Scholar 

  21. B.I. MacDonald and M. Weiss, J. Metals, 30(1) (1978) 24.

    Google Scholar 

  22. W.R.N. Sneigrove and J.C. Taylor, presented at CIM 19th Annual Conference, Aug. 24–28, 1980, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

    Google Scholar 

  23. A.K. Biswas and W.G. Davenport, Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, Pergamon, New York, 1976, p. 80, p. 204.

    Google Scholar 

  24. P.R. Amman, J.J. Kim, P.B. Crimes and F.C. Brown, Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, Vol. I, J.C. Yannapoulos and J.C. Agawal, Eds., AIME, New York, 1976, p. 331.

  25. S. Peterson, A. Norro and S. Erikson, ibid, p. 317.

  26. U.S. Patent 4,032,327, June 28, 1977.

  27. P.R. Amman, J.J. Kim and T.A. Loose, J. Metals, 31(2) (1979) 20.

    Google Scholar 

  28. A.G. Mityas and M.D. Street, CIM Bulletin, 70(10) (1977) 132.

    Google Scholar 

  29. D. Kmetova, Zbornik, V.S.T. Kosiciah (1971) 191; Met. Abstr. (1973) 42–0254.

  30. K.O. Lindblad and R.E. Dufresne, J. Metals, 26 (2) (1974) 29.

    Google Scholar 

  31. K.N. Subramanian and N.J. Themelis, J. Metals, 24 (4) (1972) 33.

    Google Scholar 

  32. L.N. Akella, K.I. Vasu and P.M. Prasad, J. Electrochem. Soc. (India), 27 (1978) 1.

    Google Scholar 

  33. S. Anand, P.K. Rao and P.K. Jena, Hydromet., 5 (1980) 355.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. D.E. Giles and A. Boden, Proc. Inst. Min. Met., 262 (1977) 39.

    Google Scholar 

  35. E. Mohri and M. Yamada, Symposium World Mining and Metals Technology, Vol. I, A. Weiss, Ed., AIME, 1976, New York, p. 520.

  36. W.E. Anable, J.I. Paige and D.L. Paulson, U.S. Bureau of Mines, RI–8554, 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  37. V.R. Miller, T.L. Hebble and D.L. Paulson, U.S. Bureau of Mines, RI–8659, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  38. P.A. Bloom, J.H. Maysillas and H. Dolezal, U.S. Bureau of Mines, RI–8679, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  39. J.D. Miller, J.A. Herbst and J.L. Spulveda, Trans. SME-AIME, 260 (1976) 166.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Jia-Jun Ke, Rui-Yun Qiu and Chia-Yung Chen, Hydromet., 12 (1984) 217.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. A.K. Hains, J. South Arican Inst. Min. Met., 78 (July 1978) 303.

    Google Scholar 

  42. G. Haiden, C.M.S. Raats and H.F. Boon, Chem & Ind., 13 (July 1, 1978) 465.

    Google Scholar 

  43. J.Y. Lee and R.G. Rosehart, CIM Bulletin, 65 (11) (1972) 33.

    Google Scholar 

  44. D.L. Laguitton, CIM Bulletin, 69 (9) (1976) 105.

    Google Scholar 

  45. F.R. Jackson, Recycling and Reclaiming

  46. H. Reinhardt, Chem. & Ind., March 1, (5) (1975) 210.

    Google Scholar 

  47. P.L. Maddison, Met. Australas., 11(8) (1979) 14.

    Google Scholar 

  48. M.J. Zakarias and M.J. Cahallan, Trans. Inst. Min. Met., 75 (1966) C245.

    Google Scholar 

  49. D.S. Flett, Trans. Inst. Min. Met., 83 (1974) C30.

    Google Scholar 

  50. B.H. Lucas, CIM Bulletin, 73 (3) (1980) 195.

    Google Scholar 

  51. J.H. Berg, Met. Australas., 12 (3) (1979) 10.

    Google Scholar 

  52. A.W. Fletcher, Chem. & Ind., 28 (July 10, 1971) 776.

    Google Scholar 

  53. C.E. Mauk and J.E. Payne, Proceedings IV Annual Industrial Pollution Conference, 1976, Chicago, XLIII--l–XLIII--22.

    Google Scholar 

  54. E. Guccione, Eng. Min. J., 172 (9) (1971) 136.

    Google Scholar 

  55. O.C. Fursman, J.E. Mauser, M.O. Butler and W.A. Stickney, U.S. Bureau of Mines, RI–7454, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  56. G. Dobos, K. Solymar and G. Horvath, Symposium Environmental Protection in the Aluminum and Nonferrous Smelting Industry, Stonehouse, Glos-Technology Ltd., 1973.

    Google Scholar 

  57. S.R. Rumke and R.G. Meare, AIME Tech. Bulletin No. 1698, Chem. Abstr. 1944, 38, 5176.

    Google Scholar 

  58. H.B. Baetz and R.C. Lightbourne, U.S. Patent 3,690,828 (1972).

    Google Scholar 

  59. J.M. Udy, U.S. Patent 2,830,892 (1958).

    Google Scholar 

  60. Y. Nishimoto, Tech. Rev. Mitsubishi Heavy Ind., 31 (1) (1966) 59, Chem. Abs. 1968, 68 116031 u.

    Google Scholar 

  61. V.G. Logomerac, Neue Huette, 20(3) (1974) 145.

    Google Scholar 

  62. V.G. Logomerac, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. ICSOBA 3383 (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  63. P.M. Prasad, Metal Sciences—The Emerging Frontiers (ICMS-77), T.R. Anantharaman, S.L. Malhotra, S. Ranganathan and P. Rama Rao, Eds., The Indian Institute of Metals, Calcutta (1979), p. 461.

  64. P.M. Prasad, J.S. Kachhawaha, R.C. Gupta, T.R. Mankhand and J.M. Sharma, Light Metals: Science & Technology, C. Suryanarayana, P.M. Prasad, S.L. Malhotra and T.R. Anantharaman, Eds., Trans Tech Publications, Aedermannsdorf, Switzerland, 1985, p. 31.

  65. G.C. Sresty and R.H. Snow, presented at the Fall Meeting of Soc. Min. Engrs. AIME, Orlando, 1978.

    Google Scholar 

  66. W.T. Ruhmer, F. Botha and J.S. Adams, J. South African Inst. Min. Met., 78 (Dec. 1977) 134.

    Google Scholar 

  67. M. Kashiwada and T. Kumagai, World Symposium on Mining and Metallurgy of Lead and Zinc, Vol. II, C.H. Cotterill and J.M. Cigan, Eds., AIME, 1970, p. 409.

  68. A. Roeder, H. Junghan and H. Kudelka, J. Metals, 22 (8) (1969) 31.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Additional information

M. Shamsuddin is currently with the Department of Metallurgical Engineering at the Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University in Varamasi, India.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Shamsuddin, M. Metal Recovery from Scrap and Waste. JOM 38, 24–31 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03257917

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03257917

Keywords

  • Blast Furnace
  • D2EHPA
  • Metal Recovery
  • Leach Liquor
  • Process Flowsheet