Transient aero-thermal mapping of passive Thermal Protection system for nose-cap of Reusable Hypersonic Vehicle

Abstract

The temperature field history of passive Thermal Protection System (TPS) material at the nose-cap (forward stagnation region) of a Reusable Hypersonic Vehicle (RHV) is generated. The 3-D unsteady heat transfer model couples conduction in the solid with external convection and radiation that are modeled as time-varying boundary conditions on the surface. Results are presented for the following two cases: (1) nose-cap comprised of ablative TPS material only (SIRCA/PICA), and (2) nose-cap comprised of a combination of ablative TPS material with moderate thermal conductivity and insulative TPS material. Comparison of the temperature fields of SIRCA and PICA [Case (1)] indicates lowering of the peak stagnation region temperatures for PICA, due to its higher thermal conductivity. Also, the use of PICA and insulative TPS [Case (2)] for the nose-cap has higher potential for weight reduction than the use of ablative TPS alone.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. [1]

    RUSSELL, G., CAYSON, S., JONES, M., CARRIGER, W., MITCHELL, R., STROBEL, F., REMBERT, M., and GIBSON, D. “Laser Window Design for the Army Hypersonic Compact Kinetic Energy Missile,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 43, No. 5, September–October 2006, pp. P.

    Google Scholar 

  2. [2]

    FOLEY, T.M. “Big Hopes for Small Launchers,” Aerospace America, Vol. 33, No. 7, May 1995, pp. 28–34.

    Google Scholar 

  3. [3]

    SMITH, B. A. and ASKER, J. R. “NASA Speeds Selection of X-33, X-34 Plans,” Aviation Week and Space Technology, Vol. 142, No. 11, January 1995, pp. 107–109.

    Google Scholar 

  4. [4]

    FREEMAN, D. C., TALAY, T. A., and AUSTIN, R. E. “Single-Stage-to-Orbit Meeting the Challenge,” Acta Astronautica, Vol. 38, Nos. 4–8, February 1996, pp. 323–331.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. [5]

    TRAN, H. K., RASKY, D. J., and ESFAHANI, L. “Thermal Response and Ablation Characteristics of Lightweight Ceramic Ablators,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 31, No. 6, November–December 1994, pp. 993–998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. [6]

    TRAN, H. K., JOHNSON, C. E., RASKY, D. J., HUI, F. C. L., HSU, M. -T., CHEN, T., CHEN, Y. K., PARAGAS, D., and KOBAYASHI, L. “Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablators (PICA) as Thermal Protection Systems for Discovery Missions,” NASA Technical Memorandum 110440, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  7. [7]

    MILOS, F. S. and SQUIRE, T. H. “Thermostructural Analysis of X-34 Wing Leading Edge Tile Thermal Protection System,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 36, No. 2, March–April 1999, pp. 189–198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. [8]

    WEILAND, C., LONGO, J., GÜLHAN, A., and DECKER, K. “Aerothermodynamics for Reusable Launch Systems,” Aerospace Science and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 2, March 2004, pp. 101–110.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. [9]

    VAN DRIEST, E. R. “The Problem of Aerodynamic Heating,” Aeronautical Engineering Review, Vol. 15, No. 10, October 1956, pp. 26–41.

    Google Scholar 

  10. [10]

    TAUBER, M. E., MENEES, G. P., and ADELMAN, H.G. “Aerothermodynamics of Transatmospheric Vehicles,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 24, No. 9, September–October 1987, pp. 594–602.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. [11]

    TAUBER, M. E. “Review of High Speed, Convective, Heat-Transfer Computation Methods,” NASA Technical Paper No. 2914, March 1989, p. 36.

    Google Scholar 

  12. [12]

    QUINN, R. D. and GONG, L. “Real-Time Aerodynamic Heating and Surface Temperature Calculations for Hypersonic Flight Simulation,” NASA-TM-4222, August 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  13. [13]

    MAHULIKAR, S. P. “Theoretical Aerothermal Concepts for Configuration Design of Hypersonic Vehicles,” Aerospace Science and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 8, November 2005, pp. 681–685.

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. [14]

    WURSTER, K. E., ZOBY, E.V., and THOMPSON, R.A. “Flowfield and Vehicle Parameter Influence on Results of Engineering Aerothermal Methods,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 28, No. 1, January–February 1991, pp. 16–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. [15]

    ZOBY, E.V. and SIMMONDS, A. L. “Engineering Flowfield Method with Angle-of-Attack Applications,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 22, No. 4, July–August 1985, pp. 398–404.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. [16]

    RILEY, C. J., DEJARNETTE, F. R., and ZOBY, E.V. “Surface Pressure and Streamline Effects on Laminar Heating Calculations,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 27, No. 1, January–February 1990, pp. 9–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. [17]

    WURSTER, K. E., RILEY, C. J., and ZOBY, E.V. “Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 36, No. 2, March–April 1999, pp. 216–228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. [18]

    KLEB, W. L., WOOD, W. A., GNOFFO, P. A., and ALTER, S. J. “Computational Aeroheating Predictions for X-34,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 36, No. 2, March–April 1999, pp. 179–188.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. [19]

    CHEN, Y. -K., HENLINE, W. D., and TAUBER, M. E. “Mars Pathfinder Trajectory Based Heating and Ablation Calculations,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 32, No. 2, March–April 1995, pp. 225–230.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. [20]

    PALMER, G. E., HENLINE, W. D., OLYNICK, D. R., and MILOS, F. S. “High-Fidelity Thermal Protection System Sizing of Reusable Launch Vehicle,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 34, No. 5, September–October 1997, pp. 577–583.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. [21]

    DINKELMANN, M., WACHTER, M., and SACHS, G. “Modeling and Simulation of Unsteady Heat Transfer for Aerospacecraft Trajectory Optimization,” Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 53, Nos. 4–6, October 2000, pp. 389–394.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. [22]

    MURRAY, A. L. and RUSSELL, G.W. “Coupled Aeroheating/Ablation Analysis for Missile Configurations,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 39, No. 4, July–August 2002, pp. 501–508.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. [23]

    SAVINO, R., FUMO, M.D. -S., PATERNA, D., and SERPICO, M. “Aerothermodynamic Study of UHTC-Based Thermal Protection Systems,” Aerospace Science and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, March 2005, pp. 151–160.

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. [24]

    KOPPENWALLNER, G. “Fundamentals of Hypersonics: Aerothermodynamics and Heat Transfer,” in: VKI Short Course Notes entitled “Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics,” presented at Von Kármán Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genése, Belgium, LS 1984-01, 1984.

    Google Scholar 

  25. [25]

    BERRY, S. A., HORVATH, T. J., DIFULVIO, M., GLASS, C., and MERSKI, N. R. “X-34 Experimental Aeroheating at Mach 6 and 10,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 36, No. 2, March–April 1999, pp. 171–178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. [26]

    O’ROURKE, J. Computational Geometry in C, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994, pp. 18–36.

    Google Scholar 

  27. [27]

    HANSEN, C. F. “Approximation for the Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of High-Temperature Air,” NASA TR R-50, 1959.

    Google Scholar 

  28. [28]

    SHAPIRO, A. H. The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow, Ronald Press Co., New York, Vol. I, 1953, p. 119.

    Google Scholar 

  29. [29]

    RUBESIN, M.W. and JOHNSON, H.A. “A Critical Review of Skin-Friction and Heat Transfer Solutions of the Laminar Boundary Layer of a Flat Plate,” Transactions of ASME, Vol. 71, No. 4, May 1949, pp. 383–388.

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  30. [30]

    ECKERT, E. R. G. “Engineering Relations for Heat Transfer and Friction in High-Velocity Laminar and Turbulent Boundary-Layer Flow over Surfaces with Constant Pressure and Temperature,” Transactions of ASME, Vol. 78, No. 6, 1956, p. 1273.

    Google Scholar 

  31. [31]

    SIMON, H. A., LIU, C. S., and HARTNETT, J. P. “The Eckert Reference Formulation Applied to High-Speed Laminar Boundary Layers of Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide,” NASA Contractor Report No. 420, April 1966.

    Google Scholar 

  32. [32]

    HOLMAN, J. P. Heat Transfer, Tata McGraw-Hill Co. New Delhi, 2001, p. 254.

    Google Scholar 

  33. [33]

    ANDERSON, D. A., TANNEHILL, J. C., and PLETCHER, R. H. Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Taylor & Francis, Washington, DC, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  34. [34]

    CHEN, Y. -K. and MILOS, F. S. “Ablation and Thermal Response Program for Spacecraft Heatshield Analysis,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 36, No. 3, May–June 1999, pp. 475–483.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. [35]

    ZOBY, E.V. and THOMPSON, R.A. “Flowfield and Vehicle Parameter Influence on Hypersonic Heat Transfer and Drag,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 27, No. 4, July–August 1990, pp. 361–368.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shripad P. Mahulikar.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mahulikar, S.P., Khurana, S., Dungarwal, R. et al. Transient aero-thermal mapping of passive Thermal Protection system for nose-cap of Reusable Hypersonic Vehicle. J of Astronaut Sci 56, 593–619 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03256567

Download citation

Keywords

  • Radiative Heat Transfer
  • Stagnation Region
  • Heat Flow Rate
  • Heat Spreading
  • Thermal Protection System