Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 570–577

Photodegradation of Congo red in aqueous solution on ZnO as an alternative catalyst to TiO2



In this research, the efficiency of ZnO and TiO2 was compared by photocatalytic degradation of Congo red azo dye. The effects of some parameters such as pH, dye concentration and irradiation time on the degradation rate of dye solution were also examined. In addition, the aggregation feature of Congo red was studied by using UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. The recovery of the ZnO catalyst was also investigated.


Photocatalytic degradation Aggregation Congo red Zinc oxide 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    M. Dakiky, I. Nemcova, Dyes Pigments 44 (2000) 181.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    M.A. Brown, S.C. De Vito, C. Rev, Environ. Sci. Technol. 23 (1993) 249.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    A.O. Ibhadon, G.M. Greenway, Y. Yue, Catal. Commun. 9 (2008) 153.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    N. Sobana, M. Muruganadham, M. Swaminathan, J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 258 (2006) 124.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    E. Bizani, K. Fytianos, I. Poulios, V. Tsiridis, J. Hazard. Mater. 136 (2006) 85.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    C. Sahoo, A.K. Gupta, Anjali Pal, Desalination 181 (2005) 91.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    S. Songa, L. Xua, Z. He, H. Ying, J. Chen, X. Xiao, B. Yan, J. Hazard. Mater. 152 (2008) 1301.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    S.F. Kang, H.M. Chang, Water Sci. Technol. 72 (1997) 215.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    H.L. Sheng, L.L. Cheng, Environ. Int. 25 (1999) 297.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    D. Oussi, A. Mokrini, S. Esplugas, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 1 (1997) 77.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    M.A. Fox, M.T. Dulay, Chem. Rev. 93 (1993) 341.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    M.H. Habibi, A. Hassanzadeh, A. Zeini-Isfahani, Dyes Pigments 69 (2006) 93.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    T. Hihara, Y. Okada, Z. Morita, Dyes Pigments 59 (2003) 25.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    APH/AWWA/WPCF, Standards Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 17th ed., American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, 1989.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    W. Zhao, Z. Wu, H. Shi, D. Wang, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 171 (2005) 97.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    J. Domenech, A. Prieto, J. Phys. Chem. 90 (1986) 1123.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    J. Fernandez, J. Kiwi, C. Lizama, J. Freer, J. Baeza, H.D. Mansilla, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 151 (2002) 213.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    B. Swarnalatha, Y. Anjaneyulu, J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 223 (2004) 161.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    H. Lachheb, E. Puzenat, A. Houas, M. Ksibi, E. Elaloui, C. Guillard, J.M. Herrmann, J. Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 39 (2002) 75.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    N. Daneshvar, D. Salari, A.R. Khataee. J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 162 (2004) 75.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    J. Villasenor, H. Masilla, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 93 (1996) 205.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    A. Fujishima, T.N. Rao, D.A. Tryk, J. Photochem. Photobiol. C: Photochem. Rev. 1 (2000) 1.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    C. Lizama, J. Freer, J. Baeza, H.D. Mansilla, Catal. Today. 76 (2002) 235.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    J. Zhao, T. Wu, K. Oikawa, H. Hidaka, N. Serpone, J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32 (1998) 2394.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    C.E. Bonancea, G.M. Do Nascimento, M.L. De Souza, M.L.A. Temperini, P. Corio, Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 69 (2006) 34.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Iranian Chemical Society 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Movahedi
    • 1
  • A. R. Mahjoub
    • 1
  • S. Janitabar-Darzi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of chemistryTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations