JOM

, Volume 48, Issue 10, pp 47–51 | Cite as

Inclusions in molten magnesium and potential assessment techniques

  • Henry Hu
  • Alan Luo
Processing Reactive Metal Overview

Abstract

Magnesium has increasingly gained acceptance in structural applications, particularly in the automotive industry. The fast-growing applications of magnesium have led to the generation of a large amount of magnesium scrap, especially die-casting scrap. Due to both economic and environmental concerns, recycling of these scraps is imperatively demanded. In order to yield high-quality recycled magnesium, the characteristics of inclusions in molten magnesium have to be identified, and techniques to evaluate the cleanliness of molten magnesium must be developed. This article reviews recent developments in characterizing inclusions and assessing the cleanliness of molten metals. The potential application of these techniques to molten magnesium is also discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S. Housh and B. Mikucki, “Properties of Magnesium Alloys,” Metals Handbook, 10th ed., vol. 2 (Materials Park, OH: ASM, 1990), p. 496.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G.S. Cole, R. Agarwal-Finstad, and J.C. Grebetz, “The Potential for Magnesium in the Automotive Industry,” Proc. 52nd Annual World Magnesium Conference (Mclean, VA: International Magnesium Association, 1995), pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Th.A. Engh, Principle of Metal Refining (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E.F. Emley, Principles of Magnesium Technology (Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press, 1966).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    O. Kubaschewski and C.B. Alcock, Metallurgical Thermochemistry, 5th ed. (Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press, London, 1979).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. J. William, “Protective Atmosphere for Molten Magnesiurn,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, Michigan (1970).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. Frisvold, “Filtration of Aluminum. Theory,Mechanisms and Experiments,” Ph.D. thesis, NTH, Trondheim, Norway (1990).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C.J. Simensen, “Analysis of Inclusions and Hydrogen in A1uminumandMagnesium,” Ph.D. thesis, NTH, Trondheim, Norway (1982).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Bakke, “Measurement and Removal of Inclusions and Hydrogen in Magnesium,” Ph.D. thesis, NTH, Trondheim, Norway (1992).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Luo and H. Hu, Institute of Magnesium Technology, unpublished work.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    N.D.G. Mountford and R. Calvert, “Precipitation Effects in Liquid Aluminum Alloys: Experiments with A Pulsed Ultrasonic Technique,” Journal of the Institute of Metals, 88 (1959-1960), pp. 121–127.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    T.L. Mansfield, “Ultrasonic Technology For Measuring MoltenAluminum Quality,” Light Metals 1982, ed. J.E. Anderson (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1982), pp. 969–981.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    T.L. Mansfield, “Molten Aluminum Quality Measured with Reynolds 4M TM System,” Light Metals 1984, ed. J.P. McGeer (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1984), pp. 1305–1328.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    N.D.G. Mountford et al., “A Measuring Device for Qual ity Control in Liquid Metals,” 6th International Conference on Refining Processes (Lulea, Sweden: ISS, 1992), pp. 465–488.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    N.D.G. Mountford et al., “Progress in the Developmentof an Ultrasonic Sensor for the Measurement of Liquid Metal Cleanliness,” Steelmaking Conference Proceedings (Warrendale, PA: ISS, 1991), pp. 773–781.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    N.D.G. Mountford et al., “The Relationship Between Inclusion Content as Measured by Ultrasonic Testing in Liquid Steel and the Cast Metal Quality,” Electric Furnace Conference Proceedings (Warrendale, PA: ISS, 1991), pp. 243–248.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    N.D.G. Mountford and I.D. Sommerville, “An Ultrasonic Sensor for Quality Control of Liquid Steel,” Steel Technology International (Warrendale, PA: ISS, 1993).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Barbiaux, “Determination of Particle Behavior in Molten Aluminum,” M.A.Sc. thesis, University of Toronto (1996).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Kuyucak and R.I.L. Guthrie, “On-Line Detection and Measurement in A Transformer Steel,” Second Int. Symp. on the Effects and Control of Inclusions and Residuals in Steels (Montreal, Quebec, Canada: CIM, 1986).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Kuyucak and R.I.L. Guthrie, “On-Line Detection and Measurement in Molten Alloys of Magnesium” (Paper presented at the 26th Annual Conf. Metallurgists, CIM, Winnipeg, 1987).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Kuyucak and R.I.L. Guthrie, “On the Measurement of Inclusions in Copper-based Melts,” Can. Met. Quarterly, 28 (1) (1989), pp. 41–48.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Kuyucak, “On the Direct Measurement of Inclusions In Molten Metals,” Ph.D. thesis, McGill University, Canada (1993).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. Dupuis and R. Dumont, “The Impact of LiMCA Technology on the Optimization of Metal Cleanliness,” Light Metals 1993, ed. S.K. Das (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1993), pp. 997–1002.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    E.U. Comerford and G. Beland, “Extended User′s Experience with the LiMCA Technology to Continuously Monitor and Improve Can Body Stock Quality,” Light Metals 1994, ed. U. Mannweiler (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1994), pp. 1083–1091.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J.P. Martin and F. Painchaud, “On-Line Metal Cleanless Determination in Molten Aiuminum Alloys using the LiMCA IT Analyser,” Light Metals 1994, ed. U. Mannweiler (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1994), pp. 915–920.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S.A. Levy, “Applications of the Union Carbide Particulate Tester,” Light Metals 1981, ed. G.M. Bell (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1981), pp. 723–733.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    D.A. Bates and L.C. Hutter, “An Evaluation of Aluminum Filtering Systems using A Vacuum-Filtration Sampling Device,” Light Metals 1981, ed. G.M. Bell (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1981), pp. 707–721.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    P. Bakke et al., “Filtration of Magnesium by Ceramic Foam Filters,” Light Metals 1992, ed. E. Cutshall (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1992), pp. 923–935.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    P. Bakke et al., “Magnesium Filtration Using Ceramic Foam Filters, and Subsequent Quantitative Microscopy of the Filters,” Materials and Manufacture Processes, 8 (4) (1994), pp. 111–138.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    D. Iymo et al., “Particle Removal in Pure Magnesium,” Light Metals 1994, ed. U. Mannweiler (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1994), pp. 1017–1024.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    D. Doutre et al., “Aluminum Cleanliness Monitoring: Methods and Applications in Process Development and Quality Control,” Light Metals 1985, ed. J.W. Evans (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1995), pp. 1179–1195.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    X.G. Chen, R.I.L. Guthrie, and J.E. Gruzleski, “Quantitative Measurement of Melt Cleanliness In Aluminum-Silicon Casting Alloys,” Proceedings of 4th AFS International Conference on Molten Aluminum Processing (Des Plaines, IL: AFS, 1995), pp. 15–28.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    M.J. Lessiter and W.M. Rasmussen, “To Pour or Not to Pour: The Dilemma of Assessing Your Aluminum Melt′s Cleanliness,” Modern Casting (February 1996), pp. 45–48.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    D.E. Groteke, T.M. Groteke, and R.G. Mabry, “Foundry Methods for Assessing Melt Cleanliness,” Proceedings of 4th AFS International Con terence on Molten Aluminum Processing (Des Plaines, IL: AFS, 1995), pp. 55–69.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    “Chill Testing of Cast Irons,” Modern Casting (November 1982), p. 40.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    F.M. Baker, “Melt Quality and Fracture Characteristics of 85-5-5-5 Red Brass,” AFS Transactions (1950), pp. 122–132.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    “Optical Technique Validates Quality of Recycled Magnesiurn,” Adv. Mater. and Process (May 1996), p. 13.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© TMS 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry Hu
    • 1
  • Alan Luo
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Magnesium TechnologyUSA

Personalised recommendations