Gold in dentistry: Alloys, uses and performance

Abstract

The current uses of gold in dental applications are reviewed and the major gold-based dental alloys are described with reference to current International Standards. Newer techniques, such as electroforming, are highlighted with suggestions for potential future areas for research and development. The future role of gold in restorative and conservative dentistry is also discussed in the light of increasing competition from alternative materials. It is clear that if longevity, functionality, aesthetics and biocompatibility, together with ease of manufacture are considered as the most important selection criteria, the optimum material for dental restorations is still an approved gold alloy.

References

  1. 1

    ‘Gold Survey 2002’ Gold Fields Mineral Services Ltd, London, 2002

  2. 2

    ‘Gold Alloys for Porcelain-Fused-to-metal Dental Restorations’, Randall M. German,Gold Bulletin, 1980,13 (2), 57–62

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    ‘24 Karat Gold and the Art of Aesthetics’ I.E. Shuman,Dentistry Today, 2001,20 4

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    ‘Dental Alloy with a High Gold Content’, European Patent EP 0691123 (1997)

  5. 5

    ‘Electroformed Gold Dental Crowns and Bridges’ Matthijs M.A. Vrijhoef, Adam J. Spanauf, Heinz H. Renggli, Gerard A. Somers and Horst L. Wismann,Gold Bulletin, 1984,17 (1), 13–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    ‘Evaluation of Bond Strength between an Electroformed Gold Coping and Porcelain’, Craig A. Sirota, Thesis, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    ‘Verträglichkeit von Dentallegierungen’, Institut der Deutschen Zahnärzte, Deutscher Ärzte Verlag, Köln (1998)

  8. 8

    Lenz, E., Jena, private communication

  9. 9

    Knosp, H., Pforzheim, unpublished tests

  10. 10

    In accordance to Gerischer and Bockris in: Frankfurter Symposium ‘Dental-legierungen heute’, Fachvereinigung Edelmetalle, Frankfurt (1984)

  11. 11

    CEN/TC 283, ‘Precious Metals Applications in Jewellery and Associated Products’, Test results for EN 1811 (1998): ‘Reference Test Method for Release of Nickel from Products intended to come into Direct and Prolonged Contact with the Skin’

  12. 12

    Wirz, J. and K. Jäger, ‘Evaluation of Commonly used Crown Systems’ QDT (1999) 193

  13. 13

    Christensen, G., Ästhetische Zahnmedizin 2 (1999) 80

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Bohm, U., Quintessenz Zahntechnik, 28, 2 (2002) 114

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Zielonka, A. und Fauser H., ‘Advanced Materials by Electrochemical Techniques’,Z. Phys. Chemie 208 (1999) 195

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

About the Authors Dr Helmut Knosp has been involved in R&D of precious metals dental alloys, materials and equipment since 1968, initially with Degussa GmbH. He joined C. Hafner GmbH in 1981 in Pforzheim as a technical director. He obtained his doctorate at the University of Stuttgart and was for several years with the Max-Planck-Institute for Metals Research, Stuttgart, and Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen. Now in retirement he

Dr Richard Holliday is currently Industrial Applications Manager at World Gold Council, London. His responsibilities include management of the Council's GROW (Gold Research Opportunities Worldwide) Programme, focused on research and feasibility studies with the potential to lead to new applications for gold. He is Chairman of the Materials Technical Committee for the GOLD2003 Conference to be held in Vancouver later this year.

Dr Christopher Corti is Director, International Technology, World Gold Council and has over 23 years, experience in precious metals technology development and industrial application. A former technical Director at Johnson Matthey Colour and Print Division, he has been at World Gold Council since 1994 and is Editor of the journalGold Bulletin.

Rights and permissions

This article is published under an open access license. Please check the 'Copyright Information' section for details of this license and what re-use is permitted. If your intended use exceeds what is permitted by the license or if you are unable to locate the licence and re-use information, please contact the Rights and Permissions team.

About this article

Cite this article

Knosp, H., Holliday, R.J. & Corti, C.W. Gold in dentistry: Alloys, uses and performance. Gold Bull 36, 93–102 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03215496

Download citation

Keywords

  • Gold Alloy
  • Artificial Saliva
  • Pure Gold
  • Breakdown Potential
  • Dental Restoration