Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH) is caused by mutations in the genes coding for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B-100 (APOB), or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). In this study, a molecular analysis ofLDLR andAPOB was performed in a group of 378 unrelated ADH patients, to explore the mutation spectrum that causes hypercholesterolemia in Poland. All patients were clinically diagnosed with ADH according to a uniform protocol and internationally accepted WHO criteria. Mutational analysis included all exons, exon-intron boundaries and the promoter sequence of theLDLR, and a fragment of exon 26 ofAPOB. Additionally, the MLPA technique was applied to detect rearrangements withinLDLR. In total, 100 sequence variations were identified in 234 (62%) patients. WithinLDLR, 40 novel and 59 previously described sequence variations were detected. Of the 99LDLR sequence variations, 71 may be pathogenic mutations. The most frequentLDLR alteration was a point mutation p.G592E detected in 38 (10%) patients, followed by duplication of exons 4–8 found in 16 individuals (4.2%). Twenty-five cases (6.6%) demonstrated the p.R3527Q mutation ofAPOB. Our findings imply that major rearrangements of theLDLR gene as well as 2 point mutations (p.G592E inLDLR and p.R3527Q inAPOB) are frequent causes of ADH in Poland. However, the heterogeneity ofLDLR mutations detected in the studied group confirms the requirement for complex molecular studies of Polish ADH patients.
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Chmara, M., Wasąg, B., Żuk, M. et al. Molecular characterization of Polish patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: novel and recurrentLDLR mutations. J Appl Genet 51, 95–106 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03195716
- apolipoprotein B-100
- familial hypercholesterolemia
- low-density lipoprotein receptor