Acta Theriologica

, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 405–409

Horn growth in male pronghornsAntilocapra americana: selection for precocialmaturation in stochastic environments

  • Carl D. Mitchell
  • Christine R. Maher

DOI: 10.1007/BF03195187

Cite this article as:
Mitchell, C.D. & Maher, C.R. Acta Theriol (2006) 51: 405. doi:10.1007/BF03195187


PronghornsAntilocapra americana (Ord, 1818), the sole member of a family unique to North America, grow rapidly and reproduce at an early age. Recent studies have found male pronghorns can grow large horns by 2 to 3 yrs of age. This pattern contrasts with many other ungulates, and it has profound implications for life history strategies. We examine 5 hypotheses that might explain precocial horn growth: (1) sampling bias, (2) nutrition, (3) phylogenetic inertia, (4) reproductive benefits conveyed by rapid horn growth alone, and (5) rapid horn growth as part of a suite of characteristics acquired due to precocial maturation. Hypotheses 1, 2 and 3 do not imply any natural selection, whereas hypotheses 4 and 5 do. We reject hypotheses 1, 2 and 4, and we cannot evaluate hypothesis 3. We conclude that hypothesis 5 most likely explains precocial maturation in male pronghorns, and mortality related to frequent, severe weather events may drive this pattern. We suggest several experiments to further examine relationships between age, size, and horn growth.

Key words

Antilocapra americana ecology evolution pronghorn 

Copyright information

© Mammal Research Institute, Bialowieza, Poland 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl D. Mitchell
    • 1
  • Christine R. Maher
    • 2
  1. 1.U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceWayanUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of Southern MainePortlandUSA

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