Skip to main content

Prey availability and diet of maned wolf in Serra da Canastra National Park, southeastern Brazil

Abstract

Analysis of 400 scats of the maned wolfChrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815), collected in Serra da Canastra National Park from November 1998 to January 2000 yielded 1688 occurrences of 69 identified food items, 49.5% of which were represented by plant items and 50.5% by animal items. According to the frequency of occurrence analysis, the most important food item categories were wolf’s fruit,Parinari obtusifolia (Chrysobalanaceae), small mammals and birds. When the estimated biomass consumption is considered, the animal items became more important (56.8%) than plant items (43.2%). Small mammals were consumed more in the dry season, while miscellaneous fruits and arthropods were consumed mostly in the wet season. Functional response was found only for the category miscellaneous fruits; however, seasonality analysis revealed that wolf’s fruit and small mammals were consumed according to their availability in the area. Prey selection was observed for most of the small mammal species, emphasizing a high level of consumption ofNecromys lasiurus, Monodelphis sp. andGracilinanus sp. The finding that most of the diet was composed of fruits and animal items from open areas of the savannah-like Cerrado led us to suggest that the maned wolf spends most of its time preying in this habitat, indicating a need to establish conservation policies for the Cerrado.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Alho C. J. R., Pereira L. A. and Paula A. C. 1986. Patterns of habitat utilization by small mammals populations in Cerrado Biome of central Brazil. Mammalia 50: 447–460.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aragona M. and Setz E. Z. F. 2001. Diet of the Maned wolf,Chrysocyon brachyurus (Mammalia: Canidae), during wet and dry seasons at Ibitipoca State Park, Brazil. Journal of Zoology, London 254: 131–136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bestelmeyer S. V. and Westbrook C. 1998. Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) predation on pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) Central in Brazil. Mammalia 62: 591–595.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bueno A. A., Belentani S. C. S. and Motta-Junior J. C. 2003. Feeding ecology of the maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) (Mammalia: Canidae), in the ecological station of Itirapina, Săo Paulo State, Brazil. Biota Neotropica 2(2): http://www.biotaneotropica. org.br/v2n2/pt/download?article+BN01802022002+item

  • Bueno A. A. and Motta-Junior J. C. 2004. Food habits of two syntopic canids, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), in southeastern Brazil. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 77: 5–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bueno A. A. and Motta-Junior J. C. 2006. Small mammals selection and functional response in the diet of the maned wolf,Chrysocyon brachyurus (Mammalia: Canidae), in southeast Brazil. Mastozoología Neotropical 13: 11–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Castro S. A, Silva S. I., Meserve P. L., Gutiérrez J. R., Contreras L. C. and Jaksic F. M. 1994. Frugivoría y dispersión de semillas de Pimiento (Schinus molle) por el zorro Culpeo (Psedalopex culpaeus) en el Parque Nacional Fray Jorge (IV Región, Chile). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 67: 169–176.

    Google Scholar 

  • Corbett L. K. 1989. Assessing the diet of Dingoes from feces: a comparison of 3 methods. The Journal of Wildlife Management 53: 343–346.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corley J. C., Fernandez G. J., Capurro A. F., Novarro A. J., Funes M. C. and Travaini A. 1995. Selection of cricetine prey by the Culpeo fox in Patagonia: a differential prey vulnerability hypothesis. Mammalia 59: 315–325.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coutinho L., Miranda H. S. and Morais H. C. de 2002. [The Cerrado biome and the fire: I- characteristics.] Instituto de Estudos Avançados, Universidade de Săo Paulo, Săo Paulo, Coleçăo Documentos, série Cięncias Ambientais, 20: 1–48. [In Portuguese]

    Google Scholar 

  • Dalponte J. C. 1997. Diet of the hoary fox,Lycalopex vetulus, in Mato Grosso, Central Brazil. Mammalia 61: 537–546.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dietz J. M. 1984. Ecology and social organization of the Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 392: 1–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eiten G. 1994. [Vegetation of cerrado]. [In: Cerrado: characteristics, use and perspectives. M. N. Pinto, ed]. Editora Universidade de Brasília, Brasília: 17–73. [In Portuguese]

    Google Scholar 

  • Emmons L. H. 1987. Comparative feeding ecology of felids in a neotropical rainforest. Behaviour, Ecology and Sociobiology 20: 271–283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Emmons L. H. 1990. Neotropical rainforest mammals: a field guide. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago: 1–281.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fonseca G. A. B. da, Herrmann G., Leite Y. L. R., Mittermeier R. A., Rylands A. B. and Patton J. L. 1996. Lista anotada dos mamíferos do Brasil. Occasional Papers in Conservation Biology, Conservation International 4: 1–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Herskovitz P. 1990. Mice of theAkodon boliviensis size class (Sigmodontinae, Cricetidae), with the description of two new species from Brazil. Fieldiana, Zoology 57: 1–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal/Fundaçăo Brasileira para a Conservaçăo da Natureza 1981. [Management plan: Serra da Canastra National Park]. Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal, Fundaçăo Brasileira para a Conservaçăo da Natureza, Brasília. [In Portuguese]

    Google Scholar 

  • Iriarte J. A., Jimenez J. E., Contreras L. C. and Jaksic F. M. 1989. Small-mammal availability and consumption by the fox,Dusicyon culpaeus, in central Chilean scrublands. Journal of Mammalogy 70: 641–645.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jácomo A. T. A., Silveira L. and Diniz-Filho J. A. F. 2004. Niche separation between the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the crab-eating fox (Dusicyon thous) and the hoary fox (Dusicyon vetulus) in central Brazil. Journal of Zoology, London 262: 99–106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jaksic F. M. 1979. Técnicas estadísticas simples para evaluar selectividad dietária en Strigiformes. Medio Ambiente 4: 114–118.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jaksic F. M. 1989. Opportunism vs. selectivity among carnivorous predators that eat mammalian prey: a statistical test of hypotheses. Oikos 56: 427–430.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jaksic F. M., Jiménez J. E., Castro S. A. and Feisenger P. 1992. Numerical and functional responses of predators to a long-term decline in mammalian prey at a semi-arid Neotropical site. Oecologia 89: 90–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Juarez K. M. and Marinho-Filho J. 2002. Diet, habitat use, and home ranges of sympatric canids in central Brazil. Journal of Mammalogy 83: 925–933.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Klink C. A. and Moreira A. G. 2002. Past and current human occupation, and land use. [In: The Cerrados of Brazil: ecology and natural history of a Neotropical savanna. P. S. Oliveira and R. J. Marquis, eds]. Columbia University Press. New York: 69–88.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lorenzi H. 1992. [Brazilian trees: manual of identification and cultivation of Brazilian native trees.] Editora Plantarum, Săo Paulo, Vol. 1: 1–382. [In Portuguese]

    Google Scholar 

  • Lorenzi H. 1998. [Brazilian trees: manual of identification and cultivation of Brazilian native trees.] Editora Plantarum, Săo Paulo, Vol. 2: 1–368. [In Portuguese]

    Google Scholar 

  • Marti C. D. 1987. Raptor food habits studies. [In: Raptor Management Techniques Manual. B. A. Pendleton, B. A. Millsap, K. W. Clinc and D. M. Bird, eds]. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D. C., Scientific Technical Series, 10: 67–80.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ministério do Meio Ambiente 2003. [National List of the Brazilian Threatened Species.] Diário Oficial da Uniăo, 101: 88–97. [In Portuguese]

    Google Scholar 

  • Motta-Junior J. C. 2000. [Temporal variation and prey selection in the diet of the maned wolfChrysocyon brachyurus (Mammalia: Canidae), at Luiz Antonio Ecological Station, SP, Brazil]. [In: Estudo Integrados em Ecossistemas. Estaçăo Ecológica de Jataí. J. E. Santos and J. S. R. Pires, eds]. Rima Editora, Săo Carlos, Săo Paulo, Vol. 1: 331–346. [In Portuguese]

    Google Scholar 

  • Motta-Junior J. C. and Martins K. 2002. The frugivorous diet of the Maned Wolf,Chysocyon brachyurus, in Brazil: ecology and conservation. [In: Seed dispersal and frugivory: ecology, evolution and conservation. D. J. Levey, W. R. Silva and M. Galetti, eds]. CABI Publishing, Wallingford: 291–303.

    Google Scholar 

  • Motta-Junior J. C., Talamoni S. A., Lombardi J. A. and Simokomaki K. 1996. Diet of the maned wolf,Chrysocyon brachyurus, in Central Brazil. Journal of Zoology, London 240: 277–284.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Putman R. J. 1984. Facts from faeces. Mammal Review 14: 79–97.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ray J. C. 1998. Temporal variation of predation on rodents and shrews by small African Forest carnivores. Journal of Zoology, London 244: 363–370.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rocha I. R. D., Cavalcanti R. B., Marinho Filho J. S. and Kitayama K. 1994. [Fauna of the Federal District.] [In: Cerrado: characteristics, use and perspectives. M. N. Pinto, ed]. Editora Universidade de Brasília, Brasília: 405–431. [In Portuguese]

    Google Scholar 

  • Rodrigues F. H. G. 2002. [Biology and Conservation of Maned Wolf at Águas Emendadas Ecological Station, DF]. PhD thesis, Universidade de Campinas, Campinas: 1–96. [In Portuguese]

    Google Scholar 

  • Santos E. F., Setz E. Z. F. and Gobbi N. 2003. Diet of the Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and its role in seed dispersal on a cattle ranch in Brazil. Journal of Zoology, London 260: 203–208.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Silva J. A. and Talamoni S. A. 2003. Diet adjustments of maned wolves,Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger) (Mammalia, Canidae), subjected to supplemental feeding in a private natural reserve, southeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 20: 339–345.

    Google Scholar 

  • Silva S. I., Lazo I., Silva-Aranguiz E., Jaksic F. M., Meserve P. L. and Gutiérrez J. R. 1995. Numerical and functional response of Burrowing Owls to long-term mammal fluctuations in Chile. Journal of Raptor Research 29: 250–255.

    Google Scholar 

  • Talamoni S. and Dias M. M. 1999. Population and community ecology of small mammals in southeastern Brazil. Mammalia 63: 167–181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zar J. H. 1999. Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall, Upper Sandle River, New Jersey: 1–663.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Diego Queirolo.

Additional information

Associate editor was Krzysztof Schmidt.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Queirolo, D., Motta-Junior, J.C. Prey availability and diet of maned wolf in Serra da Canastra National Park, southeastern Brazil. Acta Theriol 52, 391–402 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03194237

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03194237

Key words

  • maned wolf
  • biomass
  • Cerrado
  • diet
  • prey selection
  • seasonality