Skip to main content

Effect of aroma and magnum hops extracts and paracetamol on antioxidant liver parameters in mice


Hop varieties that are mainly grown in Serbia are Magnum (German variety) and Aroma, which is grown only in the Vojvodina region. About the use of hops extracts as an auxiliary remedy there are divergent opinions. Our findings indicate that extracts of Magnum and Aroma varieties, among the others, enhance and prolong the analgesic action of paracetamol. For this reason we undertook a study of the effects of these extracts alone and in combination with paracetamol, along with the action of paracetamol alone, on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes GSHPx, CAT, Px, XOD, GSHR, glutathione content, LPx intensity, as well as activities of AST and ALT. Paracetamol in the dose applied exerted no influence on the investigated parameters and neither did ethanolic extract of Magnum variety. On the other hand, ethanolic extract of Aroma hops caused a significant reduction of GSH content. In combination with paracetamol, extracts of both Magnum and Aroma varieties reduced significantly the LPx intensity, activities of CAT and GSHPx, as well as GSH content in the liver homogenate. A significant increase in the AST value with respect to control was also observed. These findings indicate the disturbance in the functioning of hepatocytes, probably by decelarating metabolism and elimination of paracetamol.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Tinseth G. (1984): The Essential Oil of Hops: Aroma and Flavor in Hops and Beer Brewing Techniques 2:

  2. Kisgeci J., Mijavec A., Acimovic M., Spevak P., Vucic, N. (1984): Hmeljarstvo, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Institut za ratarstvo i povrtarstvo, Novi Sad,

  3. Newall C.A., Anderson, L.A., Phillipson J.D. (1996): Herbal Medicines. A Guide for Health-care Professionals. Pharmaceutical Press, London, UK

    Google Scholar 


  5. Jancic R. (2002) Botanika farmaceutika, Farmaceutski fakultet, Zavod za botaniku, Beograd.

    Google Scholar 

  6. IHGC — International Hop Growers Convention. List of World hop varieties, Certification of hops and hop products 2004.

  7. Wohlfart R., Wurm G., Hansel R., Schmidt H. (1983): Detection of sedative hypnotic active ingredients in hops. 5. Degradation of bitter acids to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, a hop-constituent with sedative-hypnotic activity, Arch. Pharm., Weinheim, Deutschland.

  8. Bradley P.R. (ed.). (1992): Parsley herb. In: British Herbal Compendium. Volume 1. A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs. British Herbal Medicine Assotiation: Bournemouth,

    Google Scholar 

  9. Raskovic A., Horvat O., Jakovljevic V., Sabo J., Vasic R. (2007): Interaction of alcoholic extracts of hops with pentobarbital and diazepam in mice. Eur. J. Drug Metabol. Pharmacokinet., 32,45–49.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Horvat O., Raskovic A., Jakovljevic V., Sabo J., Berenji J. (2007): Interaction of alcoholic extracts of hops with cocaine and paracetamol in mice. Eur. J. Drug Metabol. Pharmacokinet., 32, 39–44.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Buege A.J., Aust S.D. (1978): Microsomal lipid peroxidation. In: (Gleischer S., Parker L., eds) Methods in Enzymology. Volume 52, New York: Academic Press, pp 302–310.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Simon L.M., Fatrai Z., Jonas D.E., Matkovics B. (1974): Study of metabolism enzymes during the development of Phaseolus vulgaris. Biochem. Physiol. Plants, 166, 389–393.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Beers R.F.J., Sizer J.W. (1950): Spectrophotometric method for measuring of breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. J. Biol. Chem., 195, 133–140.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Chin D.T.Y., Stults F.H., Tappel A.L. (1976): Purification and properties of rat lung soluble glutathione peroxidase Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 445, 558–566.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bergmayer U.H. (1970): Methoden Der Enzymatischen Analyse. Verlag Chemies: Weinhem, pp 483–484.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Glatzle D., Vuillenmir K. (1974): Glutathione reductase test with whole blood a convenient procedure for the assessment of the riboflavine status in human. Experimentia, 30, 665–667.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Kapetanović I.M., Mieyal, I.I. (1979): Inhibition of acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity by phenacetin and its alkoxy analogs. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 209, 25–30.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Gornau H.G., Nardwall C.L. (1949): Estimation of total protein in tissue homogenate. J. Biol. Chem., 177, 751–56.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Krofta K. (2003): Comparison of quality parameters of check and foreign hop varieties. Plant soil Environ., 49, 261–268.

    CAS  Google Scholar 


  21. Fernandes E., Passos G., Medeiros R., Cunha F.M., Ferreira J., Campos M., Pianowski L., Calixto. B. (2007): Anti-in-flammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 569, 228–236.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Ghelardini C., Galeotti N., Di Cesare M., Mazzanti G., Bartolini A. (2001): Local anaesthetic activity of beta-caryophyllene. Farmaco, 56, 387–389.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Ozturk A., Ozbek H. (2005): The anti-inflammatory activity of eugenia caryophyllata assential oil: an animal model of antiinflammatory activity. Eur. Gen. Med., 2, 159–163.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mira Popovic.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Jakovljevic, V., Popovic, M., Raskovic, A. et al. Effect of aroma and magnum hops extracts and paracetamol on antioxidant liver parameters in mice. Eur. J. Drug Metabol. Pharmacokinet. 34, 37–41 (2009).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Key words

  • Hop
  • paracetamol
  • oxidative stress
  • biochemical parameters