Skip to main content

Excretion of Aflatoxin B1 as a glutathione conjugate


Intraperitoneal injection of3H-GSH (15.4 mg, 0,5 μCi) 15 minutes before a similar i.p. treatment with Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (2mg/kg) showed less than 40% of the radioactivity in the 24 h urine and 30–35% in the bile. Analysis of the urine and bile samples by TLC and separation with XAD-2, showed only traces of the AFB1-GSH adduct present in the urine and 14% in the bile. AFB1 metabolites isolated from the urine of the3H-GSH treated rats were identical with those of rats treated with AFB1 only. While GSH Conjugate appears therefore to be a major component of biliary excretion of AFB1, it does not seem to be significant in the urinary excretion of the toxin.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Newberne, P.M. and Butler, W.H. (1969) Cancer Res. 29, 236–250. Acute and chronic effects of aflatoxin on the liver of Domestic and laboratory animals. A. review.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Garner, R.C. Miller, E.C. and Miller, J.A. (1972) Liver microsomal metabolism of aflatoxin B1 to a reactive derivative toxic to Salmonella Typhimurium TA 1530 Cancer Res. 32, 2058–2066.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Garner, R.C. (1973) Chemical evidence for the forma-tion of a reactive aflatoxin B1 metabolite, by hamster liver microsomes. Febs. Lett. 36: 261–264.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Garner R.C. and Wright CM. (1975) Binding of (14C) aflatoxin B1 to cellular macromolecules in the rat and hamster Chem — Biol. Interactions. II, 123–131.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Gurtoo, H.L. and Dave, C. (1975). Invitro metabolic Conversion of aflatoxins and Benzo(a)pyrene to Nucleic acid binding metabolites. Cancer Res. 35, 382–389.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Miller, E.C. and Miller, J.A. (1966) Mechanisms of chemical Carcinogenesis. Nature of proximate carcinogens and interactions with macromolecules. Pharmacological Reviews 18, 805–837.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Miller, J.A. (1970). Carcinogenesis by chemicals: An overview- G.H.A. Clowes Memorial Lecture. Cancer Res. 30, 559–576.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Miller, J.A. and Miller E.C. (1977). The concept of reactive electrophilic metabolites in chemical carcino-genesis: Recent results with aromatic amines, safrole and as aflatoxin B1 In Biological Reactive intermediates: formation, toxicity and interactions Edited by Jollow, D.J. Kocsis, J.J. Synder, R. and Vainio, T.J., 6–24 Plenum press, N. York, London.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Mitchell, J.R., Jollow, D.J. Potter, W.Z., Gillette, J.R. and Brodie, B.B. (1973) Acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis iv. Protective role of glutathione. J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Ther. 187, 211–217.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Jollow, D.J., Mitchell, J.R., Zampaglione, N. and Gillette, J.R., (1974) Bromobenzene-Liver necrosis: Protective role of glutathione and evidence for 2.4 Bromobenzene oxide as the hepatotoxic metabolite Pharmacology 11:157–169.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Chasseud, L.F. (1976) Glutathione: Metabolism and function. Edited by Aras. I.M. and Jakoby, W.B. Raven Press, New York, pp 77–114.

    Google Scholar 

  12. White, I.N.H. (1976) The role of liver glutathione in the acute Toxicity of retrosine to rats. Chem. Biol. Inter. 13, 333–342.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Emerole G.O., Neskovic, N. and Dixon, R.L. (1979) The detoxication of aflatoxin B1 with glutathione. Xenobiotica 9, 737–743.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Ryan, A.J. and Bend, J.R. (1977) The metabolism of styrene oxide in the isolated perfused rat liver. Identification and quantitation of major metabolites. Amer. soc. pharmacol Exptl. Ther., 5(4) 363–367.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Bassir, O. and Osiyemi, F. (1967) Biliary excretion of aflatoxin in the rat after a single dose. Nature 215, 882.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Wogan, G.N., Edwards, G.S. Shank, R.C. (1967) Excretion and Tissue Distribution of Radioactivity from aflatoxin B1-14C in rats cancer Res. 27: 1729–1736.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Smith, R.L. (1973) The excretary function of bile: The elimination of drugs and toxic substances in bile. Chapman and hall London.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Emerole, G.O. Excretion of Aflatoxin B1 as a glutathione conjugate. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 6, 265–268 (1981).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Key words

  • Aflatoxin B1
  • glutathione conjugation
  • biliary and urinary excretion