Development of the self-regulated learning teacher belief scale

Abstract

The present study describes the development and psychometric properties of the Self-Regulated Learning Teacher Belief Scale (SRLTB). The SRLTB is a self-report teacher scale with 10 items assessing teachers' beliefs about introducing self-regulated learning (SRL) in primary education. The process of item and scale development as well as testing and scale refinement procedure is presented. An explorative study (n=399) revealed a one-factor structure representing adherence of teachers for SRL in primary school. Next, Rasch analysis revealed good fit of the scale to the unidimensional continuum model. In a following study (n=553), construct validity of the SRLTB was confirmed. Finally, implications and limitations of the SRLTB for studying SRL are discussed. In general, the SRLTB appears to be a useful instrument for examining teacher beliefs about self-regulated learning practices in primary schools.

Résumé

Le but de cette étude était de décrire le développement ainsi que les caractéristiques psychométriques de la Self-Regulated Learning Teacher Belief Scale (SRLTB). La SRLTB est une échelle de 10 questions qui mesure les convictions des professeurs concernant l'introduction d'apprentissage indépendant (SRL) dans l'éducation primaire. Le processus de développement des questions et de l'échelle, et d'autre part la procédure de test et de raffinement d'échelle sont présentés. Une analyse factorielle exploratoire (EFA) a révélé une structure unifactorielle représentant la disposition des professeurs (n=399) à l'apprentissage indépendant dans l'école primaire. Ensuite, une analyse Rasch a montré que l'échelle obtient des indices d'ajustement satisfaisants pour le modèle unidimensionnel considéré. Les résultats des analyses factorielles confirmatoires sur un second échantillon (n=553) ont confirmé la structure proposée. Finalement, l'article conclue avec quelques implications pratiques et limitations de l'étude. En général, la SRLTB peut être considérée comme un instrument utile pour examiner convictions des professeurs concernant des pratiques d'apprentissage indépendant au niveau de l'éducation primaire.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Andrich, D. (1978). Application of a psychometric rating model to ordered categories which are scored with successive integers.Applied Psychological Measurement, 2, 581–594.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Andrich, D. (1988).Rasch models for measurement. Beverly Hills (CA): Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Andrich, D., Sheridan, B.E., & Luo, G. (2004).Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Models (RUMM): A windows based computer program. Perth: Murdoch University.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Antonietti, A., & Giorgetti, M. (2006). Teachers' beliefs about learning from multimedia.Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 267–282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Arbuckle, J.L. (2003).Amos 5.0 update to the Amos user's guide. Chicago, IL: Smallwaters Corporation.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Arbuckle, J.L., & Wothke, W. (1999).Amos 4.0 user's guide. Chicago, IL: Smallwaters Corporation.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Ashton, P. (1990). Editorial.Journal of Teacher Education, 44, 2.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Athanasou, J.A., & Lamprianou, I. (2005). Children's responses to interest items.Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 22(1), 22–37.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bentler, P.M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models.Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Boekaerts, M. (1997). Self-regulated learning: A new concept embraced by researchers, policy makers, educators, teachers and students.Learning and Instruction, 7(2), 161–186.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Boekaerts, M., & Minnaert, A. (1999). Self-regulation with respect to informal learning.International Journal of Educational Research, 31(2), 533–544.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bohlig, M., Fisher, W.P. Jr., Masters, G.N., & Bond, T. (1998). Content validity and misfitting items.Rasch Measurement Transactions 12(1), 607.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Bronson, M.B. (2000).Self-regulation in early childhood. New York: The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Brown, M.W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K.A. Bollen & J.S. Long (Eds.),Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, C.A.: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bryan, L., & Atwater, M. (2002). Teacher beliefs and cultural models: A challenge for science teacher preparation programs.Science Education, 86, 821–839.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Butler, D.L. (1998). The strategic content learning approach to promoting self-regulated learning: A report of three studies.Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 682–697.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Butler, D.L. (2002). Qualitative approaches to investigating self-regulated learning: Contributions and challenges.Educational Psychologist, 37(1), 59–63.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Calderhead, J. (1996). Teachers: Beliefs and knowledge. In D. Berliner & R. Calfee (Eds.),Handbook of educational, psychology (pp. 709–725). New York: Macmillan Library Reference.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Calderhead, J., & Robson, M. (1991). Images of teaching: Student teachers' early conceptions of classroom practice.Teaching & Teacher Education, 7, 1–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Carter, K. (1990). Teachers' knowledge and learning to teach. In W.R. Houston (Ed.),Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 291–310). New York: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Cattell, R.B. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors.Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1, 245–276.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Chung, M.-K. (2000). The development of self-regulated learning.Asia Pacific Education Review, 1(1), 55–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Clark, C., & Peterson, P. (1986). Teachers' thought processes. In M. Wittrock (Ed.),Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 255–296). New York: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Cleary, T.J., & Zimmerman, B.J. (2002). Self-regulation empowerment program: A school-based program to enhance self-regulated and self-motivated cycles of student learning.Psychology in the Schools, 41(5), 537–550.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Ertmer, P.A. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration?Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 25–39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Errington, E. (2001). The influence of teacher beliefs on innovation in traditional university settings. In F. Lockwood & A. Gooley (Eds.),Innovations in open and distance learning (pp. 27–37). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Errington, E. (2004). The impact of teacher beliefs on flexible learning innovation: Some practices and possibilities for academic developers.Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 41(1), 39–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Fang, Z. (1996). A review of research on teacher beliefs and practices.Educational Research, 38(1), 47–65.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Featherstone, S., & Bayley, R. (2001).Foundations of independence. Featherstone Education.

  30. Frisby, C.L. (1998). Contextual factors influencing the classroom application of learnercentered principles. In N.M. Lambert & B.L. McCombs (Eds.),How students learn: Reforming schools through learner-centered education (pp. 1–22). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Goodman, J. (1988). Constructing a practical philosophy of teaching: A study of preservice teachers' professional perspectives.Teaching and Teacher Education, 4, 121–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Haigh, N. (1998). Staff development: An enabling role. In C. Latchem & F. Lockwood (Eds.),Staff development in open and flexible learning (pp. 182–192). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Hart, L. (2002). Preservice teachers' beliefs and practice after participating in an integrated content/methods courses.School Science & Mathematics, 102, 4–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Harwood, W.S., Hansen, J., & Lotter, C. (2006). Measuring teacher beliefs about inquiry: A blended qualitative/quantitative instrument.Journal of Science Education & Technology, 17(1), 71–82.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Hermans, R., van Braak, J., & Van Keer, H. (2008). Development of the beliefs about primary education scale: Distinguishing a developmental and transmissive dimension.Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(1), 127–139.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Hofer, B.K., & Pintrich, P.R. (1997). The development of epistemological theories: Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning.Review of Educational Research, 67(1), 88–140.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteriaversus new alternatives.Structural Equating Modeling, 6, 1–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Kagan, D.M. (1992). Implications of Research on Teacher Belief.Educational Psychologist, 27(1), 65–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Kane, R., Sandetto, S., & Heath, C. (2002). Telling half the story: A critical review of research on the teaching beliefs and practices of university academics.Review of Educational Research, 72, 177–228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Klien, P. (1996). Preservice teachers' beliefs about learning and knowledge.The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 42(4), 361–377.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Kyriacou, C. (1992). Active learning in secondary school mathematics.British Educational Research Journal, 18 (3), 309–318.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Lambert, N.M., & McCombs B.L. (1998). Introduction: Learner-centered schools and classrooms as a direction for school reform. In N.M. Lambert & B.L. McCombs (Eds.),How students learn: Reforming schools through learner-centered education (pp. 1–22). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Lombaerts, K., Engels, N., & Athanasou, J. (2007). The development of the self-regulated learning inventory for teachers.Perspectives in Education, 25(4), 29–47.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Marland, P. (1997).Towards more effective open & distance teaching. London: Kogan Page.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Martinez-Pons, M. (2002). Parental influences on children's academic self-regulatory development.Theory into Practice, 41(2), 126–131.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Minor, L.C., Onwuegbuzie A.J., Witcher, A.E., & James, T.L. (2002). Preservice teachers' educational beliefs and their perceptions of characteristics of effective teachers.The Journal of Educational Research, 96(2), 116–127.

    Google Scholar 

  47. McCombs, B.L., & Whisler, J.S. (1997).The learner centered classroom and school: Strategies for increasing student motivation and achievement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  48. McDiarmid, G.W. (1990). Challenging prospective teachers' beliefs during early field experience: A quixotic undertaking?Journal of Teacher Education, 41(3), 12–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Neuman, S.B. (1996). Literacy knowledge in practice: Contexts of participation for young writers and readers.Reading Research Quarterly, 32, 10–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Nespor, J. (1987). The role of beliefs in the practice of teaching.Journal of Curriculum Studies, 19, 317–328.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Newmann, F.M., & Wehlage, G.G. (1993). Five standards of authentic instruction.Educational Leadership, 50(7), 8–12.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Newmann, F.M., Marks, H.M., & Gamoran, A.G. (1996). Authentic pedagogy and student performance.American Journal of Education, 104, 280–312.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Pajares, M.F. (1992). Teachers' beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct.Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307–332.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Pajares, F. (1997). Current directions in self-efficacy research. In M. Maehr & P.R. Pintrich (Eds.),Advances in motivation and achievement (vol. 10, pp. 1–49). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Palmer, S.B., & Wehmeyer, M.L. (2003). Promoting self-determination in early elementary school: Teaching self-regulated problem-solving and goal-setting skills.Remedial and Special Education, 24(2), 115–126.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Paris, S.G., & Newman, R.S. (1990). Developmental aspects of self-regulated learning.Educational Psychologist, 25, 87–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Pearson, J. (1985). Are teachers' beliefs incongruent with the observed classroom behavior?The Urban Review, 17, 128–146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Perry, N.E. (1998). Young children's self-regulated learning and contexts that support it.Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 715–729.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Perry, N.E., & VandeKamp, K.J.O. (2000). Creating classroom contexts that support young children's development of self-regulated learning.International Journal of Educational Research, 33, 821–843.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Perry, N.E., Phillips, L., & Dowler, J. (2004). Examining features of tasks and their potential to promote self-regulated learning.Teachers College Record, 106(9), 1854–1878.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Perry, N.E., VandeKamp, K.O., Mercer, L.K., & Nordby, C.J. (2002). Investigating teacher-student interactions that foster self-regulated learning.Educational Psychologist, 37(1), 5–16.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Platz, D.L. (1994). Student directed planning: Fostering student ownership in learning.Education, 114(3), 420–422.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Purdie, N., & Hattie, J. (1996). Cultural differences in the use of strategies for self-regulated learning.American Educational Research Journal, 33(4), 845–871.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Purdie, N., Hattie, J., & Douglas, G. (1996). Student conceptions of learning and their use of self-regulated learning strategies: A cross-cultural comparison.Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(1), 87–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Randi, J., & Corno, L. (2000). Teacher innovations in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.),Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 651–685). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Richardson, V. (1996). The role of attitudes and beliefs in learning to teach. In J. Sikula, T. Buttery, & E. Guyton (Eds.),Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 102–119). New York: Simon & Schuster/Mac Millan.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Rimm-Kaufman, S.E., Storm, M.D., Sawyer, B.E., Pianta, R.C., & LaParo, K.M. (2006). The teacher belief Q-sort: A measure of teachers' priorities in relation to disciplinary practices, teaching practices, and beliefs about children.Journal of School Psychology, 44, 141–165.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Roelofs, E., Visser, J., & Terwel, J. (2003). Preferences for various learning environments: teachers' and parents' perceptions.Learning Environments Research, 6, 77–110.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Schunk, D.H. (1996). Goal and self-evaluative influences during children's cognitive skill learning.American Educational Research Journal, 33, 359–382.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Schunk, D.H., & Zimmerman, B.J. (Eds.). (1998).Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Silvernail, D.L. (1992). The development and factor structure of the educational beliefs questionnaire.Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 663–667.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Simons, P.R.J. (1997). Definitions and theories of active learning. In D. Stern & G.L. Huber (Eds.),Active learning for students and teachers. Reports from eight countries (pp. 19–39). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Smith, K.E. (1993). Development of the primary teacher questionnaire.Journal of Educational Research, 87, 23–29.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Smith, K.E., & Croom, L. (2000). Multidimensional self-concepts of children and teacher beliefs about developmentally appropriate practices.Journal of Educational Research, 93, 312–321.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Stern, D. (1997). Study procedures. In D. Stern & G.L. Huber (Eds.),Active learning for students and teachers. Reports from eight countries (pp. 40–48). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Tatto, M.T. (1998). The influence of teacher education on teachers' beliefs about purposes of education, roles and practice.Journal of Teacher Education, 49(1), 66–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Turner, J.C. (1995). The influence of classroom contexts on young children's motivation for literacy.Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 410–411.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. van Grinsven, L., & Tillema, H. (2006). Learning opportunities to support student self-regulation: Comparing different instructional formats.Educational Research, 48(1), 77–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Van Tooren, M., & Beckers, M. (Eds.). (1999).Samen aan de Slag: Klein Praktijkboek voor Actief en Zelfstandig Leren [Set to Work Together; Practice Book for Active and Independent Learning]. 's-Gravenhage: PMVO.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Verloop, N., Van Driel, J., & Meijer, P.C. (2001). Teacher knowledge and the knowledge base of teaching.International Journal of Educational Research, 35(5), 441–461.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Velicer, W.F. (1976). Relation between factor score estimates, image scores, and principal component scores.Educational and Psychological Measurement 36(1), 149–159.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Warfield, J., Wood, T., & Lehman, J.D. (2005). Autonomy, beliefs and the learning of elementary mathematics teachers.Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 439–456.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Wehmeyer, M.L., & Palmer, S.B. (2000). Promoting the acquisition and development of self-determination in young children with disabilities.Early Education & Development, 11, 465–481.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Wehmeyer, M.L., Sands, D.J., Doll, B., & Palmer, S.B. (1997). The development of self-determination and implications for educational interventions with students with disabilities.International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 44, 212–225.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Weimer, M. (2002).Learner centered teaching: Five key changes to teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Willoughby, T., Porter, L., Belsito, L., & Yearsley, T. (1999). Use of elaboration strategies by students in grades two, four, and six.Elementary School Journal, 99(3), 221–232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Wilson, S. (1990). The secret garden of teacher education.Phi Delta Kappan, 72, 204–209.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Winne, P.H. (1997). Experimenting to bootstrap self-regulated learning.Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 397–410.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Zimmerman, B.J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning.Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3), 329–339.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Zimmerman, B.J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview.Educational Psychologist, 25, 3–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Zimmerman, B.J. (2000). Attainment of self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.),Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13–39). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Zimmerman, B.J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview.Theory into Practice, 41(2), 64–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Zimmerman, B.J., & Kitsantas, A. (1997). Developmental phases in self-regulation: Shifting from process goals to outcome goals.Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(1), 29–36.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Zimmerman, B.J., & Schunk, D.H. (2001).Self-regulated learning and academic achievement. Theoretical perspectives. MahWah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Zimmerman, B.J., Bonner, S., & Kovach, R. (1996).Developing self-regulated learners: Beyond achievement to self-efficacy. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Zwick, W.R., & Velicer, W.F. (1986). Comparison of 5 rules for determining the number of components to retain.Psychological Bulletin, 99(3), 432–442.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lombaerts, K., De Backer, F., Engels, N. et al. Development of the self-regulated learning teacher belief scale. Eur J Psychol Educ 24, 79–96 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03173476

Download citation

Key words

  • Primary education
  • Scale development
  • Self-regulated learning
  • Teacher beliefs