Experiments on the establishment and harvest ofPhragmites australis,Zizania aquatica,Typha latifolia,Typha angustifolia,Sparganium eurycarpum andSpartina pectinata were conducted in three 0.4 ha clay-bottomed man-made marshes in the central portion of the lower peninsula of Michigan. Propagules consisted of seeds for the annualZ. aquatica and root and rhizome clumps for the other species.S. eurycarpum showed rapid establishment but was subject to invasion by other species.Typha spp. established stands more slowly but maintained better stand density and purity.P. australis sent out mainly tillers from propagule clumps rather than rhizomes and vertical shoots.S. pectinata andZ. aquatica failed to establish. Multiple harvests ofTypha spp. at intervals of 3 or 6 weeks resulted in biomass removal of 130% and N and P removal of 150% of the controls. Nutrient budgets developed for the three marsh-ponds after six years of intermittant operation showed a net removal of fixed N from flow-through waters but a variable situation with total P.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Bjork, S., 1967. Ecologic investigations ofPhragmites communis. Studies in theoretic and applied limnology. Folia Limnologica Scandinavica, 14: 1–248.
Correll, D. and H. Correll, 1972. Aquatic and wetland plants of the southwestern United States. Water Pollution Control Research Series 16030 DNL 01/72, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Czerwenka, W. and K. Seidel, 1976. The combination of biological and chemical treatment at the Krefield Water Treatment Works.In Tourhier, J. and Pierson, R. W., Jr. (editors), Biological Control of Water Pollution. Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA. pp 287–293
de Jong, J., 1976. The purification of wastewater with the aid of rush or reed ponds.In Tourbier, J. and Pierson, R., Jr. (eds.). Biological Control of Water Pollution. Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA. pp 133–139.
Farnham, R. and D. Boelter, 1976. Minnesota’s peat resources: Their characteristics and use in sewage treatment, agriculture, and energy.In Tilton, D., R. Kadlec, and C. Richardson, (eds.), Freshwater Wetlands and Sewage Disposal. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. pp 241–255.
Fasset, N. 1957. A Manual of Aquatic Plants. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 405 pp.
Fetter, C., Jr., W. Sloey, and F. Spangler, 1978. Use of a natural marsh for wastewater polishing. Jour. Water Poll. Contr. Fed. 50(2): 290–307
Grace, J., and R. Wetzel, 1981. habitat partitioning and competitive displacement in cattails (Typha): experimental field studies. American Naturalist, 118: 463–474.
Grace, J. and R. Wetzel, 1982. Niche differentiation between two rhizomatous plant species:Typha latifolia andTypha angustifolia. Canadian Journal of Botany, 60: 46–57.
Hickock, E., 1978. Wetlands and organic soils for the control of urban storm water.In National Conference on Lake Restoration, August 22–24, 1978, Minneapolis, MN. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
King, D. and T. Burton, 1979. A combination of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems for maximal reuse of domestic wastewater. Proc. of the Water Reuse Symposium, AWWA Research Foundation, Denver, pp 714–726.
Lee, C., R. Hoeppel, G. Hunt, and C. Carlson, 1976. Feasibility of the functional use of vegetation to filter, de-water and remove contaminants from dredged material. Tech. Rept. d-76-4, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Exper. Sta., Vicksburg, Miss.
McNaughton, S. 1975. r- and K-selection inTypha. American Naturalist, 109: 251–261.
Pratt, D. and N. Andrews, 1981. Research in biomass/special energy crop production in wetlands.In: B. Richardson (ed.) Selected Proceedings of the Midwest Conference on Wetland Values and Management. Minnesota Water Planning Board, St. Paul, pp. 71–81.
Richardson, C., W. Wentz, J. Chamie, J. Kadlec, and D. Tilton, 1976. Plant growth, nutrient accumulation, and decomposition in a central Michigan peatland used for effluent treatment.In D. Tilton, R. Kadlec, and C. Richardson, (eds.), Freshwater Wetlands and sewage effluent disposal. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. pp 77–117.
Seidel, K., 1976. Macrophytes and water purification.In Tourbier, J. and R. Pierson, Jr. (eds.), Biological Control of Water Pollution. Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA. pp 109–121.
Sloey, W., F. Spangler, and C. Fetter, Jr., 1978. Management of freshwater wetlands for nutrient assimilation.In Good, R., D. Whigham, and R. Simpson, (eds.), Freshwater Wetlands. Ecological Processes and Management Potential. Academic Press, New York. pp 321–340.
Steward, K. and W. Ornes, 1975. Assessing a marsh environment for wastewater renovation. Jour. Water. Poll. Contr. Fed. 47(7): 1880–1891.
Tchobanoglous, G. and G. Culp, 1980. Wetland systems for wastewater treatment: An engineering assessment.In: Aquaculture Systems for Wastewater Treatment: An Engineering Assessment, 430/9-80-007, mcd-68, U.S. EPA, Washington, D.C.(S.C. Reed and R.K. Bastien, eds.), pp. 13–42.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1974. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes. U.S. EPA, Office of Technology Transfer, Washington, D.C.
van der Valk, A. and C. Davis 1978. Primary production of prairie glacial marshes.In: Good, R., D. Whigham, and R. Simpson, (eds.) Freshwater Wetlands. Ecological Processes and Management Potential. Academic Press, New York. pp 21–37.
Westlake, D.F., 1963. Comparisons of Plant Productivity. Biol. Rev. 38: 385–425.
Wile, L., G. Palmeteer, and G. Miller, 1981. Use of artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment.In: B. Richardson (ed.) Selected Proceedings of the Midwest Conference on Wetland Values and Management. Minnesota Water Planning Board, St. Paul, pp. 255–272.
About this article
Cite this article
Ulrich, K.E., Burton, T.M. The establishment and management of emergent vegetation in sewage-fed artificial marshes and the effects of these marshes on water quality. Wetlands 4, 205–220 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03160496
- Standing Crop
- Freshwater Wetland
- Emergent Vegetation
- Nutrient Budget
- Prairie Cordgrass