Spartina alterniflora culms dug from a naturally established seedling stand, and from tall- and dwarf-form stands were transplanted on a coarse (Area I) and a fine textured (Area II) substrate of similar elevation. Soil amendment treatments of 122.0 and 244.0 kg ha−2 each of inorganic N, P2O and K2O and a commercial root dip treatment were applied to the three culm types. The seedling culm type was the superior transplant material in terms of initial survival, rapid tiller production and below-ground biomass accumulation. The dwarf- and tall-form culms were from more mature stands and did not have a comparable flush of growth. Although initial transplant survival was slightly less in Area II, vegetative growth of all three culm types was more rapid than on the coarse textured substrate. Increased water holding capacity and nutrient availability of the fine textured substrate probably reduced osmotic stress between tidal inundation in the summer months and promoted growth throughout the year. At 16-mo postplanting, only the seedling culms were similar to natural stands in the vicinity in terms of culm density. Root: shoot ratios of less than unity for all culm types indicated the stand was still developing.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Barr, A. J., J. H. Goodnight, J. P. Stall, and J. H. Helwig. 1976. A user’s guide to SAS 76. SAS Institute, Incorporated. Raleigh, NC.
Bob, W. H., and R. A. Rowland. 1970. Galveston Bay hurricane surge study report 2, effects of proposed barriers on tides, currentes, salinities, and dye dispersion for normal tide conditions. Technical Report H-69-12. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
Garbisch, E. W., Jr., P. W. Woller, W. J. Bostian, and R. J. McCallum. 1975. Biotic techniques for shore stabilization, pp. 405–426.In L. E. Cronin (ed.) Estuarine Research, Vol. II. Academic Press, Inc., New York. 587 p.
Godfrey, C. L., G. S. McKee, and H. Oakes. 1973. General soils of Texas. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin. MP-581/Revised, College Station, Texas. 109 p.
Haines, B. L., and E. L. Dunn. 1976. Growth and resource allocation responses ofSpartina alterniflora Loisel to three levels of NH4−N, Fe, and NaCl in solution culture. Botanical Gazzette 137:224–230.
Kirby, C. J. and J. G. Gosselink, 1976. Primary production in a Louisiana Gulf CoastSpartina alterniflora marsh. Ecology 57:1052–1059
Kruczynski, W. L., R. T. Huffman, and M. K. Vincent. 1978. Habitat development field investigations, Apalachicola Bay marsh development site, Apalachicola Bay, Florida: Summary Report. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiments Station. Technical Report D-78-32, Vicksburg, MS. 39 p.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1977 Local climatological data. Galveston, Texas.
Ranwell, D. S. 1967. World resources ofSpartina townsendii (Sensu lato) an economic use of Spartina marshland. Journal of Applied Ecology 4:239–266.
Reimold, R. J., M. A. Hardisky, and P. C. Adams. 1978. Habitat development field investigations, Buttermilk Sound marsh development site, Atlantic intracoastal waterway, Georgia; Appendix A: propagation of marsh plants and postpropagation monitoring: Final Report. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Technical Report D-78-26, Vicksburg, MS. 223 p.
Shea, M. L., R. S. Warren, and W. A. Niering. 1975. Biochemical and transplantation studies of the growth form ofSpartina alterniflora on Connecticut salt marshes. Ecology 56:461–466.
Smart, R. M., and J. W. Barko. 1978. Influence of sediment salinity and nutrients on the physiological ecology of selected salt marsh plants. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 7:487–495.
Steele, R. G. D., and J. H. Torrie. 1960. Principles and procedures of statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Incorporated, New York. 181 p.
Tanner, G. W. 1979. Growth ofSpartina alterniflora within native and transplant-established stands on the upper-Texas Gulf Coast. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. 149 p.
Turner, R. E. and C. J. Kirby. 1975. A note on standing crops ofSpartina alterniflora in Texas and Florida. Contrib. Mar. Sci. 19: 115–118.
Webb, J. W., and J. D. Dodd. 1976. Vegetation establishment and shoreline stabilization: Galveston Bay, Texas. Technical Paper 76-13. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering, Ft. Belvoix, VA. 74 p.
Webb J. W., J. D. Dodd, B. W. Cain W. R. Leavens, C. R. Hoosner, C. Lindan, R. R. Stickney, and H. Williamson. 1977. Bolivar Peninsula marsh and upland habitat development site, Galveston Bay, Texas. Appendix D. Propagation of vascular plants and post-planting monitoring of botanical, soils aquatic biota, and wildlife resources. Technical Reprot D-77. Contract No. DACW 39-76-C-0109. U. S. Army Engineers Waterway Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. 767 p.
Woodhouse, W. W., Jr., E. D. Seneca, and S. W. Broome. 1972. Marsh building with dredge spoil in North Carolina. North Carolina Experiment Station Bulletin No. 445. 28 p.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Tanner, G.W., Dodd, J.D. Effects of phenological stage ofSpartina alterniflora transplant culms on stand development. Wetlands 4, 57–74 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03160487
- Shoot Ratio
- Tidal Inundation
- Transplant Survival
- Rhizome Biomass
- Culm Height