Advertisement

Kind en adolescent

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 116–130 | Cite as

Opvoeding en de ontwikkeling van grandioos en kwetsbaar narcisme: Een overzicht

  • Eddie Brummelman
  • Sander C. E. Thomaes
Artikelen
  • 909 Downloads

samenvatting

De basis van de narcistische persoonlijkheid wordt gelegd in de kindertijd. Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van empirisch onderzoek naar de opvoedingsfactoren die van invloed kunnen zijn op de ontwikkeling van narcisme – in het bijzonder van de grandioze en kwetsbare subtypes van narcisme. Onderzoek suggereert dat de ontwikkeling van beide subtypes kan worden bevorderd door enerzijds (excessieve) ouderlijke permissiviteit en anderzijds ouderlijke ‘overwaardering’ of juist koudheid en afwijzing. Beloninggevoelig temperament van het kind kan deze invloeden versterken. Daarnaast is gebleken dat de ontwikkeling van kwetsbaar (maar niet grandioos) narcisme kan worden gestimuleerd door ouderlijke psychologische controle. Strafgevoelig temperament van het kind kan deze invloed versterken. Cross-cultureel, prospectief longitudinaal onderzoek is nodig om de causaliteit en generaliseerbaarheid van deze verbanden vast te stellen. Narcisme is een groeiend probleem in de westerse samenleving, en we hopen dat kennis van de socialisatie van narcisme deze trend kan keren.

Literatuur

  1. Akhtar, S. (2009). Love, sex, and marriage in the setting of pathological narcissism. Psychiatric Annals, 39, 185-191.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4e ed.). Washington, dc: auteur.Google Scholar
  3. Assor, A., Roth, G., & Deci, E. L. (2004). The emotional costs of parents’ conditional regard: A self-determination theory. Journal of Personality, 72, 47-88.Google Scholar
  4. Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental psychological control: Revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, 67, 3296-3319.Google Scholar
  5. Barber, B. K., Stolz, H. E., & Olsen, J. A. (2005). Parental support, psychological control, and behavioral control: Assessing relevance across time, culture, and method [Monografie]. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70(4), 1-137.Google Scholar
  6. Bardenstein, K. K. (2009). The cracked mirror: Features of narcissistic personality disorder in children. Psychiatric Annals, 39, 147-155.Google Scholar
  7. Barry, C. T., Frick, P. J., Adler, K. K., & Grafeman, S. J. (2007). The predictive utility of narcissism among children and adolescents: Evidence for a distinction between adaptive and maladaptive narcissism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 508-521.Google Scholar
  8. Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (2007). Temperament, parenting, and socialization. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Red.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (pp. 153-177). New York, ny: Guilford.Google Scholar
  9. Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2001). Narcissism as addiction to esteem. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 206-209.Google Scholar
  10. Brummelman, E., & Thomaes, S. (2009). Grandioos en kwetsbaar narcisme. PsychoPraxis, 11, 11-15.Google Scholar
  11. Bushman, B. J., & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 219-229.Google Scholar
  12. Bushman, B. J., Baumeister, R. F., Thomaes, S., Ryu, E., Begeer, S., & West, S. G. (2009). Looking again, and harder, for a link between low self-esteem and aggression. Journal of Personality, 77, 427-446.Google Scholar
  13. Bleiberg, E. (1988). Developmental pathogenesis of narcissistic disorders in children. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 52, 3-15.Google Scholar
  14. Cain, N. M., Pincus, A. L., & Ansell, E. B. (2008). Narcissism at the crossroads: Phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 638-656.Google Scholar
  15. Campbell, W. K., & Foster, C. A. (2002). Narcissism and commitment in romantic relationships: An investment model analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 484-495.Google Scholar
  16. Capron, E. W. (2004). Types of pampering and the narcissistic personality trait. Journal of Individual Psychology, 60, 76-93.Google Scholar
  17. Carlson, K. S., & Gjerde, P. F. (2009). Preschool personality antecedents of narcissism in adolescence and young adulthood: A 20-year longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 570-578.Google Scholar
  18. Carver, C. S., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2009). Anger is an approach-related affect: Evidence and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 183-204.Google Scholar
  19. Derksen, J. (2007). Zijn we wel narcistisch genoeg? Over het ontstaan van onze lentecultuur als gevolg van gewijzigde vroegkinderlijke condities. Nijmegen: pen Tests Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Dickinson, K. A., & Pincus, A. L. (2003). Interpersonal analysis of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Journal of Personality Disorders, 17, 188-207.Google Scholar
  21. Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2001). Narcissism and motivation. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 216-219.Google Scholar
  22. Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2002). Approach-avoidance motivation in personality: Approach and avoidance temperaments and goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 804-818.Google Scholar
  23. Feintuch, B. (1999). Adult attachment, narcissism, shame, and defensiveness [Samenvatting]. Dissertation Abstracts International, 59(10), 5575B.Google Scholar
  24. Fossati, A., Borroni, S., Grazioli, F., Dornetti, L., Marcassoli, I., Maffei, C., & Cheek, J. (2009). Tracking the hypersensitive dimension in narcissism: Reliability and validity of the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale. Personality and Mental Health, 3, 235-247.Google Scholar
  25. Foster, J. D., & Campbell, W. K. (2007). Are there such things as “Narcissists” in social psychology? A taxometric analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1321-1332.Google Scholar
  26. Foster, J. D., Campbell, W. K., & Twenge, J. M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 469-486.Google Scholar
  27. Gabbard, G. O. (1989). Two subtypes of narcissistic personality disorder. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 53, 527-532.Google Scholar
  28. Harter, S. (1990). Causes, correlates and the functional role of global self-worth: A life-span perspective. In R. Sternberg & J. Kolligian, Jr. (Red.), Competence considered (pp. 67-98). New Haven, ct: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Harter, S. (1999). The construction of the self: A developmental perspective. New York, ny: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  30. Hendin, H. M., & Cheek, J. M. (1997). Assessing hypersensitive narcissism: A reexamination of Murray’s Narcism Scale. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 588-599.Google Scholar
  31. Horton, R. S., Bleau, G., & Drwecki, B. (2006). Parenting Narcissus: What are the links between parenting and narcissism? Journal of Personality, 74, 345-376.Google Scholar
  32. Hyler, S. E. (1994). Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4. Interne publicatie. New York, ny: Columbia University.Google Scholar
  33. Kernberg, O. F. (1975). Borderline conditions and pathological narcissism. New York, ny: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  34. Kernberg, O. F. (1980). Internal world and external reality. New York, ny: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  35. Kernberg, O. F. (1998). Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. In E. Ronningstam (Red.), Disorders of narcissism: Diagnostic, clinical, and empirical implications (pp. 29-52). Washington, dc: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kernberg, P. F. (1989). Narcissistic personality disorder in children. The Psychiatric Clinics of North American, 12, 671-694.Google Scholar
  37. Kohut, H. (1971). The analysis of the self. New York, ny: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  38. Kohut, H. (1977). The restoration of the self. New York, ny: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  39. Laible, D., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Early socialization: A relationship perspective. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Red.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (pp. 181-207). New York, ny: Guilford.Google Scholar
  40. Lakey, C. E., Rose, P., Campbell, W. K., & Goodie, A. S. (2008). Probing the link between narcissism and gambling: The mediating role of judgment and decision-making biases. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 21, 113-137.Google Scholar
  41. Lasch, C. (1979). The culture of narcissism: American life in an age of diminishing expectations. New York, ny: Norton.Google Scholar
  42. Luhtanen, R. K., & Crocker, J. (2005). Alcohol use in college students: Effects of level of self-esteem, narcissism, and contingencies of self-worth. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19, 99-103.Google Scholar
  43. Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Serie Red.) & E. M. Hetherington (Vol. Red.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4e ed., pp. 1-101). New York, ny: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. Marsh, H. W., Craven, R. G., & Debus, R. L. (1998). Structure, stability, and development of young children’s self-concepts: A multicohort-multioccasion study. Child Development, 69, 1030-1053.Google Scholar
  45. Miller, J. D., & Campbell, W. K. (2008). Comparing clinical and social-personality conceptualizations of narcissism. Journal of Personality, 76, 449-476.Google Scholar
  46. Miller, J. D., Campbell, W. K., Pilkonis, P. A., & Morse, J. Q. (2008), Assessment procedures for narcissistic personality disorder: A comparison of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 and best-estimate clinical judgments. Assessment, 15, 483-492.Google Scholar
  47. Millon, T. (1969). Modern psychopathology: A biosocial approach to maladaptive learning and functioning. Philadelphia, pa: Saunders.Google Scholar
  48. Millon, T. (1981). Disorders of personality: dsm-iii, axis ii. New York, ny: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  49. Morf, C. C., & Rhodewalt, F. (2001). Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism: A dynamic self-regulatory processing model. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 177-196.Google Scholar
  50. Munich, R. L., & Munich, M. A. (2009). Overparenting and the narcissistic pursuit of attachment. Psychiatric Annals, 39, 227-235.Google Scholar
  51. O’Brien, M. L. (1987). Examining the dimensionality of pathological narcissism: Factor analysis and construct validity of the O’Brien Multiphasic Narcissism Inventory. Psychological Reports, 61, 499-510.Google Scholar
  52. Otway, L. J., & Vignoles, V. L. (2006). Narcissism and childhood recollections: A quantitative test of psychoanalytic predictions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 104-116.Google Scholar
  53. Paulhus, D. L. (1998). Interpersonal and intrapsychic adaptiveness of trait self-enhancement: A mixed blessing? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1197-1208.Google Scholar
  54. Pettit, G. S., Laird, R. D., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Criss, M. M. (2001). Antecedents and behavior-problem outcomes of parental monitoring and psychological control in early childhood. Child Development, 72, 583-598.Google Scholar
  55. Pincus, A. L., & Lukowitsky, M. R. (2010). Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 421-446.Google Scholar
  56. Ramsey, A., Watson, P. J., Biderman, M. D., & Reeves, A. L. (1996). Self-reported narcissism and perceived parental permissiveness and authoritarianism. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 157, 227-238.Google Scholar
  57. Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 890-902.Google Scholar
  58. Rhodewalt, F., & Eddings, S. K. (2002). Narcissus reflects: Memory distortion in response to ego-relevant feedback among high- and low-narcissistic men. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 97-116.Google Scholar
  59. Ronningstam, E. (2005). Identifying and understanding the narcissistic personality. New York, ny: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Ronningstam, E. (2009). Narcissistic personality disorder: Facing dsm-v. Psychiatric Annals, 39, 111-121.Google Scholar
  61. Rosenfeld, H. (1987). Impasse and interpretation: Therapeutic and anti-therapeutic factors in the psychoanalytic treatment of psychotic, borderline, and neurotic patients. New York, ny: Brunner-Routlegde.Google Scholar
  62. Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., & Evans, D. E. (2000). Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 122-135.Google Scholar
  63. Rubin, K. H., Burgess, K. B., & Hastings, P. D. (2002). Stability and social-behavioral consequences of toddlers’ inhibited temperament and parenting behaviors. Child Development, 73, 483-495.Google Scholar
  64. Ruble, D. N., & Frey, K. S. (1991). Changing patterns of comparative behavior as skills are acquired: A functional model of self-evaluation. In J. Suls & T. A. Wills (Red.), Social comparison: Contemporary theory and research (pp. 70-112). Hillsdale, nj: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  65. Thomaes, S., & Bushman, B. J. (in druk). Treating Narcissus: A basic research perspective. In W. K. Campbell & J. D. Miller (Red.), Handbook of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. Hoboken, nj: Wiley.Google Scholar
  66. Thomaes, S., Bushman, B. J., Stegge, H., & Olthof, T. (2008). Trumping shame by blasts of noise: Narcissism, self-esteem, shame, and aggression in young adolescents. Child Development, 79, 1792-1801.Google Scholar
  67. Thomaes, S., Poorthuis, A., & Nelemans, S. (in druk). Self-esteem. In B. Brown & M. Prinstein (Red.), Encyclopedia of adolescence. Oxford, Engeland: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  68. Thomaes, S., Stegge, H., Bushman, B. J., Olthof, T., & Denissen, J. (2008). Development and validation of the Childhood Narcissism Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90, 382-391.Google Scholar
  69. Thomaes, S., Bushman, B. J., Orobio de Castro, B., & Stegge, H. (2009). What makes narcissists bloom? A framework for research on the etiology and development of narcissism. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 1233-1247.Google Scholar
  70. Twenge, J. M. (2006). Generation me: Why today’s young Americans are more confident, assertive, entitled – and more miserable than ever before. New York, ny: Free Press.Google Scholar
  71. Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2009a). The narcissism epidemic: Living in the age of entitlement. New York, ny: Free Press.Google Scholar
  72. Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2009b). Increases in positive self-views among high school students: Birth-cohort changes in anticipated performance, self-satisfaction, self-liking, and self-competence. Psychological Science, 19, 1082-1086.Google Scholar
  73. Twenge, J. M., & Foster, J. D. (2010). Birth cohort increases in narcissistic personality traits among American college students, 1982-2009. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 99-106.Google Scholar
  74. Twenge, J. M., Abebe, E. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2010). Fitting in or standing out: Trends in American parents’ choices for children’s names, 1880-2007. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 19-25.Google Scholar
  75. Twenge, J. M., Konrath, S., Foster, J. D., Campbell, W. K., & Bushman, B. J. (2008). Egos inflating over time: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality, 76, 875-902.Google Scholar
  76. Vernon, P. A., Villani, V. C., Vickers, L. C., & Harris, J. A. (2008). A behavioral genetic investigation of the Dark Triad and the Big Five. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 445-452.Google Scholar
  77. Watson, P. J., Grisham, S. O., Trotter, M. V., & Biderman, M. D. (1984). Narcissism and empathy: Validity evidence for the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 301-305.Google Scholar
  78. Watson, P. J., Hickman, S. E., & Morris, R. J. (1996). Self-reported narcissism and shame: Testing the defensive self-esteem and continuum hypotheses. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 253-259.Google Scholar
  79. Wink, P. (1991). Two faces of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 590-597.Google Scholar
  80. Young, J., & Flanagan, C. (1998). Schema-focused therapy for narcissistic patients. In E. Ronningstam (Red.), Disorders of narcissism: Diagnostic, clinical, and empirical implications (pp. 239-268). Washington, dc: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  81. Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York, ny: Guilford Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Bohn Stafleu van Loghum 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.

Personalised recommendations