Psychologie en Gezondheid, jaargang 2007

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 105–115 | Cite as

Het effect van slanke vrouwen in commercials op eetgedrag bij lijners

  • Doeschka J. Anschutz
  • Tatjana van Strien
  • Rutger C. M. E. Engels


The present study aimed at further examining the effects of exposure to slim media models and light-products in commercials on food intake in relation to restrained eating. Food intake was measured in 124 female students while they watched a neutral or sad movie interrupted by either neutral commercials, or commercials with slim models and light-products. Afterwards, participants were asked to fill out questionnaires on restrained eating and the tendency to overeat. It appeared that high restrained eaters who were exposed to commercials with slim models and light-products ate much less compared to high restrained eaters who were exposed to neutral commercials, whereas unrestrained eaters who were exposed to commercials with slim models and light-products ate slightly more than when exposed to neutral commercials. This might suggest that restrained eaters who watch slim media models and light-products on television could be reminded of their diets.


  1. Alexander, J.M., & Tepper, B.J. (1995). Use of reduced-calorie/reduced-fat foods by young adults: Influence of gender and restraint. Appetite, 25, 217-230.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Dunkley, T.L., Wertheim, E.H., & Paxton, S.J. (2001). Examination of a model of multiple sociocultural influences on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint. Adolescence, 36, 265-279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Field, A.E., Austin, S.B., Camargo, C.A., Taylor, C.B., Striegel-Moore, R.H., Loud, K.J., & Colditz, G.A. (2005). Exposure to the mass media, body shape concerns, and use of supplements to improve weight and shape among male and female adolescents. Pediatrics, 116, 214-220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Garner, D.M. (1991). Eating disorder inventory-2 manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Recourses, Inc.Google Scholar
  5. Gorman, B.S., & Allison, D.B. (1995). Measures of restraint eating. In Allison, D.B. (Ed.). Handbook of assessment methods for eating behavior and weight-related problems: Measures, theory and research (pp. 149-184). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  6. Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (1997). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 138-143.Google Scholar
  7. Heatherton, T.F., Herman, C.P., & Polivy, J. (1991). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 138-143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Herman, C.P., & Mack, D. (1975). Restrained and unrestrained eating. Journal of Personality, 43, 647-660.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Herman, C.P., & Polivy, J. (1980). Restraint eating. In A.J. Stunkard (Ed.), Obesity (pp. 208-225). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.Google Scholar
  10. Herman, C.P., Polivy, J., Pliner, P., Threlkeld, J., & Munic, D. (1978). Distractibility in dieters and nondieters: An alternative view of externality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 536-548.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Herman, C.P., Polivy, J., & Silver, R. (1979). Effects of an observer on eating behavior: The induction of “sensible” eating. Journal of Personality, 47, 85-99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hibscher, J.A., & Herman, C.P. (1977). Obesity, dieting, and the expression of "obese" characteristics. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 91, 374-380.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Maxwell, S.E., & Delaney, H.D. (1993). Bivariate median splits and spurious statistical significance. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 181-190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mills, J.S., Polivy, J., Herman, C.P., & Tiggemann, M. (2002). Effects of exposure of thin media images: Evidence of self-enhancement among restrained eaters. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1687-1699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Neumark- Sztainer, D., Rock, C.L., Thornquist, M.D., Cheskin, L.J., Neujouser, M.L., & Barnett, M.J. (2000). Weight-control behaviors among adults and adolescents: Associations with dietary intake. Preventive Medicine, 30, 381-391.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ouwens, M.A, Strien, T. van, & Staak, C.P.F. van der (2003a). Absence of a disinhibition effect of alcohol on food consumption. Eating Behaviors, 4, 323-332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ouwens, M.A, Strien, T. van, & Staak, C.P.F. van der (2003b). Tendency toward overeating and restraint as predictors of food consumption. Appetite, 40, 291-298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Polivy, J., Coleman, J., & Herman, C.P. (2005). The effect of deprivation on food cravings and eating behaviour in restrained and unrestrained eaters. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 38, 301-309.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Polivy, J., Heatherton, T.F., & Herman, C.P. (1988). Self-esteem, restraint, and eating behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 354-356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Polivy, J., & Herman, C.P. (1999). Distress and eating: Why do dieters overeat? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 26, 153-164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Polivy, J., Herman, C.P., Hackett, R., & Kuleshnyk, I. (1986). The effects of self-attention and public attention on eating in restrained and unrestrained eaters. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1253-1260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Polivy, J., Herman, C.P., Younger, J.C., & Erksine, B. (1979). Effects of a model on eating behaviour: The induction of a restrained eating style. Journal of Personality, 47, 100-117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Presnell, K., Bearman, S.K., & Stice., E. (2004). Risk factors for body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys and girls: A prospective study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 36, 389-401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Schotte, D.E., Cools, J., & McNally, R.J. (1990). Film-induced negative affect triggers overeating in restraint eaters. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 317-320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Seddon, L., & Berry, N. (1996). Media-induced disinhibition of dietary restraint. British Journal of Health Psychology, 1, 27-33.Google Scholar
  26. Stice, E. (2002). Risk and maintenance factors for eating pathology: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 825-848.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Stice, E., Fisher, M., & Lowe, M.R. (2004). Are dietary restraint scales valid measures of acute dietary restriction? Unobtrusive observational data suggests not. Psychological Assessment, 16, 51-59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Stice, E., Ozer, S., & Kees, M. (1997). Relation of dietary restraint to the bulimic symptomatology: The effects of the criterion confounding of the Restraint Scale. Behavior Research and Therapy, 35, 145-152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stice, E., Mazotti, L., Krebs, M., & Martin, S. (1998). Predictors of adolescent dieting behaviors: A longitudinal study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 12, 195-205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stice, E., Schupak-Neuberg, E., Shaw, H.E., & Stein, R.I. (1994). Relation of media exposure to eating disorder symptomatology: An examination of mediating mechanisms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 836-840.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Stice, E., & Shaw, H.E. (2002). Role of body dissatisfaction in the onset and maintenance of eating pathology: A synthesis of research findings. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53, 985-993.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Strauss, J., Doyle, A.E., & Kreipe, R.E. (1994). The paradoxical effect of diet commercials on reinhibition of dietary restraint. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 441-444.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Strien, T. van (2002). Eating Disorder Inventory II. Nederlandse versie (EDI II NL). Handleiding. Amsterdam: Harcourt Assessment B.V.Google Scholar
  34. Strien, T. van(2005). Nederlandse Vragenlijst voor Eetgedrag 2005. Handleiding en verantwoording. Amsterdam: Boom test uitgevers.Google Scholar
  35. Strien, T. van, Cleven, A., & Schippers, G. (2000). Restraint, tendency toward overeating and ice cream consumption. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 28, 333-338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Strien, T. van, Engels, R.C., Staveren, W. van, & Herman, C.P. (2006). The validity of dietary restraint scales: Comment on Stice et al. (2004). Psychological Assessment, 18, 89-94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Strien, T. van, Frijters, J.E.R., Bergers, G.P.A., Defares, P.B. (1986). The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behaviour. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 295-315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stunkard, A.J., & Messick, S. (1985). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29, 71-83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Thompson, J.K., Heinberg, L.J., Altabe, M., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting beauty: Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance. Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Urbszat, D., Herman, C.P., & Polivy, J. (2002). Eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we diet: Effects of anticipated deprivation on food intake in restrained and unrestrained eaters. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 396-401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Warren, C.S., Strauss, J., Taska, J.L., & Sullivan, S.J. (2005). Inspiring or dispiriting? The effect of diet commercials on snack food consumption in high school and college-aged women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 37, 266-270.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Watson, D., Clark, L.A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063-1070.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Whisman, M.A., & McClelland, G.H. (2005). Designing, testing, and interpreting interactions and moderator effects in family research. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 111-120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Wildes, J.E., Emery, R.E., & Simons, A.D. (2001). The roles of ethnicity and culture in the development of eating disturbance and body dissatisfaction: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 521-551.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bohn Stafleu van Loghum 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Doeschka J. Anschutz
    • 1
  • Tatjana van Strien
  • Rutger C. M. E. Engels
  1. 1.

Personalised recommendations