A revision of the genusDimorphocalyx Thw. (Euphorbiaceae) for India and adjoining countries is presented. Three species and two varieties are recognised.Dimorphocalyx beddomei (Benth.) Airy Shaw is endemic to south India.Dimorphocalyx lawianus Hook. f., endemic to south India is reduced to a variety ofDimorphocalyx glabellus Thw.Dimorphocalyx dilipianus Balakr. and T Chakrab. is reduced to a synonym ofDimorphocalyx balakrishnanii T Chakrab. and Premanath, endemic to Andaman Islands. Keys to the taxa, taxonomic descriptions and illustrations are presented.