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Hochfrequenzstromablation von ektopen atrialen Tachykardien

Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ectopic atrial tachycardias: Different mapping strategies to localize right and left sided foci

Unterschiedliche Mapping-Strategien zur Lokalisation rechts- und linsseitiger Ursprungsorte

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Die Hochfrequenzstrom-(HFS)-Ablation stellt in den letzten Jahren ein neues kuratives Therapieverfahren für ektope atriale Tachykardien (EAT) dar. Wir untersuchten unterschiedliche Mapping-Strategien bei der HFS-Ablation von rechts- und linksseitigen EAT-Foki. Eingeschlossen in die Studie wurden 48 Patienten (35±18 Jahre) mit 52 EAT-Foki. Zur Lokalisation der Foki verwendeten wir das Aktivierungs-Mapping im bipolaren Lokalelektrogramm und die morphologische Beurteilung des unipolaren Lokalelektrogramms (QS-Komplex). Im Falle von mechanischen Blockierungen wurden die stimulierten P-Wellen im Oberflächen-EKG mit den P-Wellen während EAT verglichen.Ergebnisse: Bei 44 Patienten konnten 46 EAT (zehn links- und 36 rechtsseitige) durch HFS-Ablation terminiert werden. Bei den linksseitigen EAT waren 40% in dem Bereich der Pulmonalvenen lokalisiert. Die durchschnittliche Prozedurund Durchleuchtungsdauer unterschied sich nicht zwischen links-(304±131 min bzw. 39±29 min) und rechtsseitiger, (241±101 min bzw. 31±19 min) Lokalisation. Das Intervall zwischen dem Lokalelektrogramm und dem Beginn der P-Welle war bei links- (45±22 ms) im Vergleich zu rechtsseitiger (30±18 ms) Fokuslokalisation signifikant länger. Bei zehn Patienten (20%) kam es während des Mappings zu mechanischen Blockierungen. Die Lokalisation des Ursprungsorts während mechanischer Blockierung gelang mit Hilfe des Vergleichs der P-Welle von EAT und Stimulation in acht Fällen. Bei zwei Patienten kam es innerhalb von 24 Stunden zum erneuten Auftreten der EAT.

Während der Nachbeobachtung von vier bis 58 Monaten kam es drei bis acht Monate nach Ablation bei vier Patienten (8%) zu einem Rezidiv der EAT.

Schlußfolgerungen: 1. Die HFS-Ablation von EAT ist sowohl für links- als auch rechtsseitige Ursprungsorte ein effektives und risikoarmes. Therapieverfahren. Die Prozedur- und Durchleuchtungsdauer unterscheiden sich nicht bei rechts- und linksseitiger Lokalisation. 2. Durch häufige Lokalisationen linksseitiger EAT in dem Bereich der Pulmonalvenen zeigt das Aktivierungs-Mapping hier ein früheres Lokalelektrogramm im Verhältnis zur P-Welle als bei rechtsseitigen EAT. 3. Es kommt in etwa 20% der HFS-Ablationen von EAT zu mechanischen Blockierungen. Während Blockierung kann der Vergleich der stimulierten P-Welle mit der EAT-P-Welle eine nützliche Hilfe zur Lokalisation des Ursprungs der EAT darstellen.


Ectopic atrial tachycardia (EAT) is a rare form of supraventricular tachycardia and often drug-resistant. Radiofrequency catheter (RFC) ablation offers an alternative therapy suggesting a high efficacy rate. Localization of the EAT origin is proposed to be efficacious by various mapping strategies. We analyzed the efficacy of different mapping strategies for localization of right and left sided EAT foci.

Methods and Patients: In a cohort of 48 patients (25 female; age 35±18 years) RFC ablation of 40 right and 12 left sided EAT foci was performed. Mapping of the right atrium was achieved with 2 ablation catheters using the “encircling” technique (Figure 1). We looked for an early bipolar local electrogram in relation to the onset of the P-wave and a QS-complex in the unipolar electrogram. The bipolar local electrogram was retrospectively analyzed for a fragmented morphology and duration of more than 50 ms (Figure 3). In case of mechanical block of the EAT during mapping P-wave pace mapping over the mapping catheter was performed (Figure 4).

Results: RFC ablation succeeded in 44 patients with 46 EAT foci (Figure 5). Left sided EAT origin was in 40% in the region of the pulmonary veins. Two left sided foci were abladed within the coronary sinus. An anteroseptal location in vicinity to the bundle of His was found in 4 cases (Figure 6). There were no differences between left and right sided origin regarding session duration (304±131 vs 241±101 min) and fluoroscopic time (39±29 vs 31±19 min). The activation time related to the onset of the P-wave was at successful ablation site for left sided origin significantly earlier compared to a right sided origin (45±22 vs 30±18 ms). Fragmentation of the bipolar local electrogram was found before successful RFC application in 86% in the left and in 65% in the right atrium. The unipolar electrogram showed in 87% of all cases a QS-complex before the successful RFC pulse. In 16% a beat to beat change of the unipolar electrogram could be found at successful ablation site (Figure 7). Both criteria had a low specifity and sensitivity. Mechanical block could be induced during mapping in 10 patients (20%). In these cases RFC application at a site with a perfect match of P-wave pace mapping succeeded in 8 patients. In 2 patients the same EAT occurred within the following 24 hours.

During a follow-up of 4 to 58 months there were additionally recurrence of EAT in 3 patients (3 to 6 months after ablation). No influence of the AV nodal conduction was observed after ablation of anteroseptal EAT foci. Other acute or chronic complications were not observed.

Conclusions: 1. RFC ablation of right and left sided EAT foci is a safe and efficacious treatment. There were no differences regarding session duration and fluoroscopic time between right and left sided foci. 2. Activation mapping showed an earlier activation time for left sided origin compared to right sided. 3. Mechanical block could be induced in 20% of cases. P-wave pace mapping might offer a strategy to localize the focus during mechanical block.

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Correspondence to Christian Weiß.

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Weiß, C., Willems, S., Cappato, R. et al. Hochfrequenzstromablation von ektopen atrialen Tachykardien. Herz 23, 269–279 (1998).

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  • Ektope atriale Tachykardien
  • Hochfrequenzstromablation
  • Pulmonalvenen

Key Words

  • Ectopic atrial tachycardia
  • Radiofrequency catheter ablation
  • Pulmonary vein