Andrologie

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 265–272 | Cite as

La spermatide ronde partenaire de l’ovocyte: autopsie d’un échec

  • Nada Borghol
  • Ahmed Ziyyat
  • Thierry Blachere
  • Annick Lefevre
Spermatides et ICSI

Resume

La spermatide ronde, bien que haploïde comme le spermatozoïde, reste un très improbable partenaire pour l’ovocyte humain: depuis l’introduction de la technique ROSI (pour «ROund Spermatid Injection») en clinique humaine en 1995, seulement 10 naissances ont été répertoriées malgré le grand nombre de tentatives réalisées. L’analyse dans un modèle animal de l’expression génique au début du développement suivant la microinjection d’une spermatide ouvre la voie à une meilleure compréhension de l’échec de ce mode de fécondation chez l’homme. Nous avons montré que, chez la souris, les profils d’expression des embryons préimplantatoires étaient différents selon que le génome paternel était apporté par un spermatozoïde ou une spermatide ronde. Par ailleurs, suivant la microinjection d’une spermatide ronde, les gènes exprimés post-méïotiquement dans le gamète mâle sont réprimés à des temps différents au cours du développement, mettant en évidence une reprogrammation du génome de la spermatide par le cytoplasme ovocytaire. Une possible défaillance de cette reprogrammation pour expliquer l’échec du développement dans le cas de spermatides rondes provenant de patients infertiles est discutée.

Mots clés

spermatide ronde ICSI reprogrammation nucléaire modifications épigénétiques 

Round spermatid as a partner for the oocyte: autopsy of a failure

Abstract

Although the round spermatid is haploid like spermatozoa, it remains an unlikely partner for the human oocyte. Only 10 children have been born since introduction of the ROSI (ROund Spermatid Injection) technique into human clinical practice in 1995, despite the large number of attempts. Analysis, in an animal model, of gene expression in the early embryo following microinjection of either spermatozoa or round spermatids provides a better understanding of the reasons for this failure. We have shown, in mice, that embryos from spermatozoa and round spermatids do not exhibit the same gene expression profile up to the 4-cell stage. Male post-meiotically expressed genes were also repressed at various times following fertilization with a round spermatid, demonstrating reprogramming of the male nucleus. This suggests the hypothesis that aberrant epigenetic reprogramming of the male nucleus may contribute to the high incidence of developmental failure when round spermatids from infertile patients are used.

Key words

round spermatid ICSI nuclear reprogramming epigenetic modifications 

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Copyright information

© Société d’Andrologie de Langue Française 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nada Borghol
    • 1
  • Ahmed Ziyyat
    • 2
  • Thierry Blachere
    • 1
  • Annick Lefevre
    • 1
  1. 1.INSERM/INRA U 418Hopital DebrousseLyon Cedex 05France
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Biologie de la ReproductionUniversité Paris-NordBobigny

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