Andrologie

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 326–331 | Cite as

Effet des androgènes sur l’activité sportive

  • G. Peres
Androgenes et Sport

Resume

Les sécrétions androgéniques semblent apporter un bénéfice à la performance sportive en:
  • -renforçant la motivation, la volonté, la résistance au stress, voire l’agressivité, et en augmentant la résistance à la fatigue générale perçue, d’où la possibilité d’accoroître les charges d’entraînement,

  • -renforçant probablement la trame et la minéralisation, et donc la résistance mécanique, osseuses en intervenant sur les métabolismes protéiques et calciques,

  • -stimulant, en relation avec l’érythropoïétine, l’érythropoïèse au niveau de la moelle hématogène,

  • - augmentant la glycémie, mais aux dépens d’une diminution de la tolérance au glucose,

  • - stimulant la mobilisation des triglycérides du tissu adipeux,

  • - participant à mieux gérer, chez le sportif entraîné, les réserves de glycogène musculaire dont dépend l’endurance maximale aérobie et à les économiser par une utilisation accrue, par le métabolisme oxydatif au niveau des mitochondries, des triglicérides provenant du tissu adipeux. Le transport membranaire du glucose est modifié,

  • - augmentant la masse protéique musculaire, en stimulant l’incorporation des acides aminés en vue de la synthèse protéique, et par un effet antagoniste des glucocorticoïdes en diminuant la dégradation protéique. La force musculaire est augmentée sous entraînement. Ces effets anabolisants ne sont pas retrouvés au niveau des tendons.

  • - et en modulant les défenses immunitaires, renforcées ou amoindries selon la dose physiologique ou pharmacologique d’androgènes.

Mots-clés

Androgènes physiologie exercice musculaire sport performance 

Androgenic effects on sport characteristics

Abstract

Androgenic hormones seem to be of beneficial effects on sports performance:
  • - they increase motivation, will, aggressiveness, resistance to the stress and to the fatigue, leading to an increase of the training quantity,

  • - they increase bone mineralization and probably mechanical resistance,

  • - they stimulate the bone marrow and so, with the erythropoietin, the erythropoiesis,

  • - they increase the tendancy to hyperglycemia, but with a decrease of the tolerance to the glucose,

  • - they stimulate the fatty acids mobilization from the adipose tissue, for their utilization in the muscle during the exercise,

  • - they participate, for the trained sportmen, to a better gestion of the muscle glycogen storage: their utilization during exercise is decreased,

  • - they increase the lean body mass, with an increase of the protein synthesis and a decrease of the protein catabolism, leading also to an increase of the muscle force under training. There is no beneficial effect upon the tendons,

  • - they have an immunomodulation action.

Key-words

Androgens physiology muscular exercise sports beneficial effects 

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Copyright information

© Société d’Andrologie de Langue Française 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Peres
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Physiologie et de Médecine du SportChu Pitié-SalpétrièreParis

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