Skip to main content
Log in

In vitro evaluation of the capacity of zeolite and bentonite to adsorb aflatoxin B1 in simulated gastrointestinal fluids

  • Published:
Mycotoxin Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Anin vitro study using single concentration and isotherm adsorption was carried out to evaluate the capacity of Vietnamese produced zeolite and bentonite to adsorb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in simulated gastrointestinal fluids (SGFs), and a commercial sorbent hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) was used as reference. In this study, AFB1 solution was mixed with sorbents (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5% w/v) in SGFs at pH 3 and pH 7 and shaken for 8 h, centrifuged and the supernatant measured by Vicam fluorometer. Adsorption of AFB1 onto zeolite and bentonite varied according to the pH of SGFs and was lower than HSCAS. Linearity between the increased amount of AFB1 adsorbed on sorbents and the decrease of sorbent concentration was observed for bentonite and HSCAS, except for zeolite in SGFs at pH 7. The observed maximum amounts of AFB1 adsorbed on bentonite and HSCAS were 1.54 and 1.56 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption capacities of bentonite and HSCAS for AFB1 were 12.7 and 13.1 mg/g, respectively, from fitting the data to the Freundlich isotherm equation. Improvement in processing and purification for bentonite is needed to enhance the surface area, which would probably result in better adsorptive capacity for this sorbent.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. CAST (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology) (2003) Mycotoxins. Risks in plant, animal, and human systems. Task Force Report No 139:13–85. CAST Ames, IA

    Google Scholar 

  2. Miller DM, Stuart BP, Crowell WA (1981) Experimental aflatoxicosis in swine: morphological and clinical pathological results. Can J Comp Med 45: 343–351

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Miller DM, Crowell WA, Stuart BP (1982) Acute aflatoxicosis in swine: Clinical pathology, histopathology, and electron microscopy. Am J Vet Res 43: 273–277

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Sharma RP (1993) Immunotoxicity of Mycotoxins. J Dairy Sci 76: 892–897

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Quezada T, Cuellar H, Jaramillo-Juarez F, Valdivia AG, Reyes JL (2000) Effects of aflatoxin B1 on the liver and kidney of broiler chickens during development. Comp Biochem Phys C Pharmacol Endocrinol 125: 265–272

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Shivachandra SB, Sah RL, Singh SD, Kataria JM, Manimaran K (2003) Immunosuppression in broiler chicks fed aflatoxin and inoculated with fowl adenovirus serotype-4 (FAV-4) associated with hydropericardium syndrome. Vet Res Commun 27: 30–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Groopman JD, Cain LG, Kensler TW (1988) Aflatoxin exposure in human populations: measurements and relationship to cancer. Crit Rev Toxicol 19: 113–145

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Fernández A, Hernández M, Verde MT, Sanz M (2000) Effect of aflatoxin on performance, hematology, and clinical immunology in lambs. Can J Vet Res 64: 53–58

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Doyle MP, Applebaum RS, Brackett RE, Marth EH (1982) Physical, chemical and biological degradation of mycotoxins in foods and agricultural commodities. J Food Protect 45: 964–971

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Smith JE, Harran G (1993) Microbial degradation of mycotoxins. Int Biodeter Biodegr 32: 205–211

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Park DL (1991) Perspectives on mycotoxin decotamination procedures. Food Addit Contam 10: 49–60

    Google Scholar 

  12. McKenzie KS, Sarr AB, Mayura K, Bailey RH, Miller DR, Rogers TD, Norred WP, Voss KA, Plattner RD, Kubena LF, Phillips TD (1997) Oxidative degradation and detoxification of mycotoxins using a novel source of ozone. Food Chem Toxicol 35: 807–820

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Bata A, Lasztity R (1999) Detoxification of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed by microorganisms. Trends Food Sci Tech 10: 223–228

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Aidoo KE (1993) Postharvest storage and preservation of tropical crops. Int Biodeter Biodegr 32: 161–173

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Moss MO (1991) Economic importance of mycotoxins— Recent incidence. Int Biodeter Biodegr 27: 195–204

    Google Scholar 

  16. Phillips T, Kubena LF, Harvey RB, Taylor DR, Heidelbaugh ND (1988) Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate: a high affinity sorbent for aflatoxin. Poult Sci 67: 242–247

    Google Scholar 

  17. Schell TC, Lindemann MD, Kornegay ET, Blodgett DJ (1993) Effects of feeding aflatoxincontaminated diets with and without clay to weanling and growing pigs on performance, liver functioin, and mineral metabolism. J Anim Sci 71: 1209–1218

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Schell TC, Lindemann MD, Kornegay ET, Blodgett DJ, Doerr JA (1993) Effectiveness of different types of clay for reducing the detrimental effects of aflatoxin-contaminated diets on performance and serum profiles of weanling pigs. J Anim Sci 71: 1226–1231

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Huwig A, Freimund S, Kappeli O, Dutler H (2001) Mycotoxin detoxication of animal feed by different adsorbents. Toxicol Lett 122: 179–188

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Masimango N, Remacle J, Ramaut JL (1978) The role of adsorption in the elimination of aflatoxin B1 from contaminated media. Eur J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 6: 101–105

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Ramos AJ, Hernandez E (1996) In vitro aflatoxin adsorption by means of a montmorillonite silicate. A study of adsorption isotherms. Anim Feed Sci Technol 62: 263–269

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Grant PG, Phillips TD (1998) Isothermal Adsorption of Aflatoxin B1 on HSCAS Clay. J Agric Food Chem 46: 599–605

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Diaz D, Hagler W, Hopkins B, Whitlow L (2003) Aflatoxin Binders I: In vitro binding assay for aflatoxin B1 by several potential sequestering agents. Mycopathologia 156: 223–226

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Tomasevic-Canovic M, Dakovic A, Rottinghaus G, Matijasevic S, Duricic M (2003) Surfactant modified zeolites-new efficient adsorbents for mycotoxins. Micropor Mesopor Mater 61: 173–180

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Lindemann MD, Blodgett DJ, Kornegay ET, Schurig GG (1993) Potential ameliorators of aflatoxicosis in weanling/growing swine. J Anim Sci 71: 171–178

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Lindemann MD, Blodgett DJ, Harper AF, Kornegay ET, Doerr JA (1997) Appraisal of the value of selected clays and minerals in diets with and without aflatoxin-contaminated maize to young pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 6: 507–519

    Google Scholar 

  27. Shi YH, Xu ZR, Feng JL, Wang CZ (2006) Efficacy of modified montmorillonite nanocomposite to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin in broiler chicks. Anim Feed Sci Technol 129: 138–148

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Grant PG, Lemke SL, Dwyer MR, Phillips TD (1998) Modified Langmuir Equation for S-Shaped and Multisite Isotherm Plots. Langmuir 14: 4292–4299

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Jaynes WF, Zartman RE, Hudnall WH (2007) Aflatoxin B1 adsorption by clays from water and corn meal. Appl Clay Sci 36: 197–205

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Ramos AJ, Hernandez E (1997) Prevention of aflatoxicosis in farm animals by means of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate addition to feedstuffs: a review. Anim Feed Sci Technol 65: 197–206

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Lemke SL, Ottinger SE, Mayura K, Ake CL, Pimpukdee K, Wang N, Phillips TD (2001) Development of a multi-tiered approach to the in vitro prescreening of clay-based enterosorbents. Anim Feed Sci Technol 93: 17–29

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Avantaggiato G, Havenaar R, Visconti A (2003) Assessing the zearalenone-binding activity of adsorbent materials during passage through a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model. Food Chem Toxicol 41: 1283–1290

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Stippler E, Sabine K, Jennifer BD (2004) Comparision of US Pharmacopeia Simulated Intestinal Fluid TS (without pancreatin) and Phosphate Standard Buffer pH 6.8, with respect to their use in In Vitro dissolution testing. Dissolution Technologies, May 2004

  34. Jansen Van Rensburg C (2003) The ameliorating effect of oxihumate on aflatoxicosis in broilers. PhD thesis. In: Department of Animal and Wildlife Science. University of Pretoria: Pretoria

    Google Scholar 

  35. Vekiru E, Fruhauf S, Sahin M, Ottner F, Schatzmayr G, Krska R (2007) Investigation of various adsorpbents for their ability to bind aflatoxin B1. Mycotoxin Research 23: 27–33.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Scheideler SE (1993) Effects of various types of aluminosilicates and aflatoxin B1 on aflatoxin toxicity, chick performance, and mineral status. Poult Sci 72: 282–288

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Ledoux DR, Rottinghaus GE, Bermudez AJ, Alonso-Debolt M (1998) Efficacy of a Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate to Ameliorate the Toxic Effects of Aflatoxin in Broiler Chicks. Poult Sci 77: 204–210

    Google Scholar 

  38. Pimpukdee K, Kubena LF, Bailey CA, Huebner HJ, Afriyie-Gyawu E, Phillips TD (2004) Aflatoxin-induced toxicity and depletion of hepatic vitamin A in young broiler chicks: protection of chicks in the presence of low levels of Nova Sil PLUS in the diet. Poult Sci. 83: 737–744

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Desheng Q, Fan L, Yanhu Y, Niya Z (2005) Adsorption of Aflatoxin B1 on Montmorillonite. Poult Sci 84: 959–961

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to N. Q. Thieu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Thieu, N.Q., Pettersson, H. In vitro evaluation of the capacity of zeolite and bentonite to adsorb aflatoxin B1 in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Mycotox Res 24, 124–129 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03032338

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03032338

Keywords

Navigation