Skip to main content

Stomatal and photosynthetic responses ofCichorium intybus leaves to sulfur dioxide treatment at different stages of plant development

Abstract

Fifty-day-oldCichorium intybus Linn, plants were exposed to 1 ppm sulfur dioxide gas, 2 h per day for 7 consecutive days. Their leaves as well as those from the control plants were sampled at pre-flowering, flowering, and post-flowering stages to study their morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses to SO2 stress. The number, dimensions, area, and biomass of leaves were less in the treated plants. Length and width of stomatal apertures on both epidermises were greater for leaves exposed to SO2. The Stomata were longer on the adaxial epidermis, but shorter on the abaxial epidermis, except at the pre-flowering stage. Stomatal widths varied widely. Compared with the controls, the abaxial epidermis on treated leaves showed consistently lower stomatal densities as well as stomatal indices. This was also true for the adaxial epidermis during the post-flowering stage. The photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were reduced in the SO2-exposed plants, but intercellular CO2 concentrations increased at the pre-flowering stage and, subsequently, declined. Chlorophyll a, carotenoid, and total chlorophyll contents increased at the pre-flowering stage, and then decreased. The level of chlorophyllb was reduced throughout plant development compared with the untreated controls.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Literature cited

  1. Alscher R (1984) Effect of SO2 on light modulated enzyme reactions,In MJ Koziol, FR Whatley, eds, Caseous Air Pollutants and Plant Metabolism, Butterworth Scientific, London, pp 181–200

    Google Scholar 

  2. Atkinson CJ, Winner WE (1987) Gas exchange characteristics ofHeteromeles arbutifolia during fumigation with sulphur dioxide. New Phytol 106: 423–436

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Cao HF (1989) Air pollution and its effects on plants in China. J Appl Ecol 26: 763–773

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Darrall NM (1989) The effect of air pollutants on physiological processes in plants. Plant Cell Environ 12: 1–30

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Duxbury AC, Yentsch CS (1956) Plankton, pigment monography. J Air Pollut Cont Assoc 16: 145–150

    Google Scholar 

  6. Ghouse AKM, Yunus M (1972) Preparation of epidermal peels from leaves of gymnosperms by treatment with hot 60% HNO3. Stain Technol 47: 322–324

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Gridhar BA (1981) Relation between rates of absorption of SO2 by plant and area of leaf. Proc 68th Ind Sci Cong Abstract 39: 158

    Google Scholar 

  8. Hiscox JD, Israelstam GF (1979) A method for the extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration. Can J Bot 57: 1332–1334

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Iqbal M, Ali ST, Mahmooduzzafar (2000) Photosynthetic performance of some dicotyledonous tropical plants under degraded environment,In MA Khan, S Farooq, eds, Environment, Biodiversity and Conservation, APH Publ Corp, New Delhi, pp 410–427

    Google Scholar 

  10. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (1991) Indian Medicinal Plants. Lalit Mohan Basu, Allahabad

    Google Scholar 

  11. Kondo N, Maruta I, Sugahara K (1984) Effect of sulphite on stomatal aperture size inVicia epidermal peels. Res Rep Natl Inst Environ Stud Jpn 65: 9–18

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Levitt J (1980) Responses of Plants in Environmental Stresses. Vol II. Water, Radiation, Salt and Other Stresses, Academic Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  13. MacLachlan S, Zalik S (1963) Plastid structure, chlorophyll concentration and free amino acid composition of a chlorophyll mutant of a barley. Can J Bot 41:1053–1062

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Mansfield TA, Pearson M (1996) Disturbances in stomatal behaviour in plants exposed to air pollution,In M Yunus, M Iqbal, eds, Plant Response to Air Pollution, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, pp 179–193

    Google Scholar 

  15. Nandi PK, Agarwal M, Rao DN (1986) Effects of fumigating rice plants with sulphur dioxide on photosynthetic pigments and non-structural carbohydrates. Agric Ecos Environ 18: 53–62

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Peiser GD, Yang SF (1978) Chlorophyll destruction in the presence of bisulphate and linolenic acid hydroperoxide. Phytochemistry 17: 79–84

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Rao DN, LeBlanc FB (1966) Effect of SO2 on lichen alga with special reference to chlorophyll. The Bryologist 70: 69–75

    Google Scholar 

  18. Salisbury EJ (1927) On the causes and ecological significance of stomatal frequency with special reference to the woodland flora. Phil Tran R Soc B216: 1–65

    Google Scholar 

  19. Sandman G, Gonzales HG (1989) Peroxidative processes induced in bean leaves by fumigation with SO2. Environ Pollut 56: 145–154

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Shimazaki K, Sakaki T, Kondo N, Sugahara K (1980) Active oxygen participation in chlorophyll destruction and lipid peroxidation in SO2-fumigated leaves of spinach. Res Rep Natl Inst Environ Stud Jpn 11: 91–101

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Steubig L, Fangmeier A (1987) SO2 sensitivity of plant community in beech forest. Environ Pollut 44: 297–306

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Treshow M (1984) Air Pollution and Plant Life. John Wiley and Sons, New York

    Google Scholar 

  23. Veljovic-Jovanovic S, Bilger W, Heber U (1993) Inhibition of photosynthesis, acidification and stimulation of zeaxanthin formation in leaves by sulphur dioxide and reversal of these effects. Planta 191: 365–376

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Williams AJ, Banerjee SK (1995) Effects of thermal power plant emissions on vegetation. Ind J For Res 19: 330–334

    Google Scholar 

  25. Ziegler I (1973) The effect of air polluting gases on plant metabolism,In F Coulson, F Korte, eds, Environmental Quality and Safety: Global Aspects of Chemistry, Toxicology and Technology as Applied to the Environment, Stuttgart, Thieme, pp 182–208

    Google Scholar 

  26. Ziegler I (1974) Action of sulphite on plant malate dehy-drogenase. Phytochemistry 13: 2411–2416

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Bhupinder Dhir, Mahmooduzzafar, Tariq Omar Siddiqi or Muhammad Iqbal.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Dhir, B., Mahmooduzzafar, Siddiqi, T.O. et al. Stomatal and photosynthetic responses ofCichorium intybus leaves to sulfur dioxide treatment at different stages of plant development. J. Plant Biol. 44, 97–102 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03030282

Download citation

Keywords

  • Biomass
  • chlorophyll
  • Cichorium intybus
  • photosynthesis
  • stomatal behavior