Mechanical strength test method for solder ball joint in BGA package


Ball shear tests were investigated in terms of effects of test parameters, i.e. shear height and shear speed, with an experimental and non-linear finite element analysis in order to evaluate the solder joint integrity of area array packages. The substrate was a common SMD type with solder bond pad openings of 460 μm in diameter. Microstructural investigations were carried out using SEM, and the IMCs were identified with EDS. It was observed that increasing shear height, at fixed shear speed, results in decreasing shear force, while the shear force increased with increasing shear speed at fixed shear height. Excessive shear height could cause some detrimental effects on the test results such as unexpected high standard deviation values or shear tip sliding from the solder ball surface. Low shear height conditions are favorable for screening the type of brittle interfacial fractures or degraded layers in the interfaces.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    S. Ho, G. Wang, M. Ding, J. Zhao, and X. Dai,Microelectronics Reliability 44, 719 (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    P. Towashiraporn, K. Gall, G. Subbaravan, B. McIlvanie, B. C. Hunter, D. Love, and B. Sullivan,Int. J. Fatigue 26, 497 (2004).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    L. C. Shiau, C. E. Ho, and C. R. Kao,Soldering and Surface Mount Technology 14, 25 (2002).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    S. K. Kang, W. K. Choi, M. J. Yim, and D. Y. Shih,J. Electron. Mater. 31, 1292 (2002).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    J. W. Yoon, S. W. Kim, and S. B. Jung,Mater. Trans. 45, 727 (2004).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    J. W. Kim and S. B. Jung,Mater. Sci. Eng. A 371, 267 (2004).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    J. W. Kim, D. G. Kim, J. M. Koo, and S. B. Jung,Proceedings of 5 th International Conference on Electronics Materials and Packaging (ed, Sung Yi), p. 282, IEEE, Singapore (2003).

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    S. W. Ricky Lee and X. Huang,Soldering and Surface Mount Technology 14, 45 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    JESD22-B117,JEDEC Solid State Technology Association (2002).

  10. 10.

    J. W. Yoon, C. B. Lee, D. U. Kim, and S. B. Jung,Met. Mater.-Int 32, 1195 (2003).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    H. T. Lee, M. H. Chen, H. M. Jao, and T. L. Liao,Mater. Sci. Eng. A 358, 134 (2003).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    X. Zhao, C. Wang, G. Zheng, and S. Yang,IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing 23, 87 (2000).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    K. N. Chiang and C. A. Yuan,IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging 24 158 (2001).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    M. Amagai,Microelectronics Reliability 39, 1365 (1999).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    J. K. Lin, A. D. Silva, D. Frear, Y. Guo, S. Hayes, J. W. Jang, L. Li, D. Mitchell, B. Yeung, and C. Zhang,IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing 25, 300 (2002).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    J. H. Lau and Y. W. Ricky Lee,IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing 25, 51 (2002).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    J. H. Lau and Y. H. Pao,Solder Joint Reliability of BGA, CSP, Flip Chip, and Fine Pitch SMT Assemblies, p. 91, McGraw-Hill, Inc., NY (1997).

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    K. C. Chang and K. N. Chiang,IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies 27, 373 (2004).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    M. A. Matin, W. P. Vellinga, and M. G. D. Geers,Acta mater,52, 3475, (2004).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    J. E. Ho, R. Zheng, G. L. Luo, A. H. Lin, and C. R. Kao,J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1175 (2000).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    J. W. Choi, H. S. Cha, and T. S. Oh,Met. Mater.-Int. 9, 273 (2003).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    G. E. DieterMechanical Metallurgy, p. 139 McGraw-Hill, Inc., NY (1988).

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    A. Nadai,Theory of Flow and Fracture of Solids, p. 535, McGraw-Hill, Inc., NY (1950).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Seung-Boo Jung.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kim, JW., Kim, DG. & Jung, SB. Mechanical strength test method for solder ball joint in BGA package. Met. Mater. Int. 11, 121 (2005).

Download citation


  • shear height
  • shear speed
  • finite element analysis
  • solder
  • shear test