National identity in moral education textbooks for high school students in the Philippines: A content analysis


The past two consecutive administrations in the Philippines saw the need for developing a greater sense of national identity among Filipinos. In response, the Education Sector strengthened the teaching of values on national ideals and Filipino heritage. One reform was the offering of Moral Education as an independent subject in the secondary education curriculum. In support of this, publishing companies developed textbooks on Moral Education, which teachers used, aside from the prescribed textbooks. To determine the extent and nature of the inclusion of national identity in these textbooks, this study analyzed the content of 12 sample textbooks. Findings suggest the need to improve the content of textbooks in terms of the values relevant in developing citizens with a strong sense of national identity needed for national development.

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Correspondence to Sherlyne A. Almonte.

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Almonte, S.A. National identity in moral education textbooks for high school students in the Philippines: A content analysis. Asia Pacific Educ. Rev. 4, 19–26 (2003).

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Key Words

  • national identity
  • moral education
  • Philippines
  • secondary education