Skip to main content

Wild cabbages and the effects of cultivation

Summary

The wild cabbage,Brassica oleracea L., on the coasts of western Europe, shows enormous increase in size when taken into cultivation. It shows much variation, which is correlated with its self-sterility. It has the potentiality for producing, since its cultivation began, perhaps early in the Neolithic, kale, brussels sprouts and cabbage. But the historical evidence favours the derivation of cabbage and kale from Italy in pre-Roman times. It would be interesting to compare the wildB. oleracea of Italy (B. Robertiana J. Gay) with the species as found on the coasts of western Europe.

The middle and eastern Mediterranean contains several species nearly related toB. oleracea. Probably cauliflower and broccoli came fromB, cretica, the most eastern of these; and such cultigens as kohlrabi may have been derived from one of the middle Mediterranean species. The various cultivated forms appear therefore to have had a polyphyletic origin.

Enormous increase in size is a feature ofB. oleracea when introduced into cultivation from a chalk soil. The F1 from cabbage x kale is closely similar and is apparently a case of reversion to the ancestral type on crossing two of the derivatives.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Alam, Z. (1936). Self-sterility inEruca sativa Lam.J. Genet.32, 257–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bailey, L. H. (1922). Brassicae cultorum.Gentes Herbarum,1, 53–108.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bailey, L. H. (1930). Brassicae cultorum. II.Gentes Herbarum,2, 211–67.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bailey, L. H. (1940). Certain noteworthy Brassicas.Gentes Herbarum,4, 319–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhaduri, P. N. &Bose, P. C. (1947). Cyto-genetical investigations in some common cucurbits, with special reference to fragmentation of chromosomes as a physical basis of speciation.J. Genet.48, 237–56.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • De Candolle, A. P. (1824). Memoir on the different species, races, and varieties of the genusBrassica (cabbage) and of the genera allied to it, which are cultivated hi Europe.Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond.5, 1–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Candolle, Alph. (1896). Origine des Plantes Gultivées, 4th ed. Paris.

  • Catcheside, D. G. (1934). The chromosomal relationships in the swede and turnip groups ofBrassica.Ann. Bot., Lond.,48, 601–33.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frandsen, K. J. (1947). The experimental formation ofBrassica napus L. var oleifera DC. andB. carinata Braun.Dansh bot. Ark.12, no. 7.

  • Frandsen, H. N. &Winge, O. (1932).Brassica napocampestris a new constant amphidiploid species hybrid.Hereditas, Lund,16, 212–18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gates, R. R. (1910). Abnormalities inOenothera.Rep. Mo. Bot. Gdns,21, 175–83.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gates, R. R. (1950). Genetics and taxonomy of the cultivated Brassicas and their wild relatives.Bull. Torr. Bot. Club,77, 19–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hegi, G. (1913-19).Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa,4, 242–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Howard, H. W. (1938). The chromosome number of the swede,Brassica napus L. J. Genet.35, 383–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kakizaki, Y. (1930). Studies on the genetics and physiology of self- and cross-incompatibility in the common cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var.capitala L.).Jap. J. Bot.5, 133–208.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kristofferson, K. B. (1924). Contributions to the genetics ofBrassica oleracea.Hereditas, Lund,5, 297–364.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kristofferson, K. B. (1927). Contributions to the genetics ofBrassica, oleracea. II.Hereditas, Lund,9 343–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuzmina, N. E. (1927). On the chromosomes ofBeta vulgaris L. (Russian with English summary.)Bull. Appl. Bot. Genet. Pl. Breed.17, 241–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lamprecht, H. (1939). Translokation, Genspaltung und Mutation beiPisum.Hereditas, Lund,25 431–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lamprecht, H. (1948). Neue und bisher bekannte Ergebnisse der KreuzungPhaseolus vuglaris L. xcoccineus L. und reziprok.Agric. Hort. Genet.6, 83–145.

    Google Scholar 

  • Malinowski, E. (1921). Sur les hybrides du chou pommé avec le chou frisé.Mém. Inst. Génét. Varsovie,1.

  • Malinowski, E. (1929). Genetics ofBrassica.Bibliogr. genet.5, 1–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Musil, A. F. (1948). Distinguishing the species ofBrassica by their seed.Misc. Publ. U.S. Dep. Agric. no. 643, pp. 35.

  • Onno, M. (1933). Die Wildformen aus der Verwandtschaftskreis ‘B. oleracea L.’Öst. Bot. Z.82, 309–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pearson, O. H. (1933). Study of the life history ofBrassica oleracea.Bot. Gaz.94 534–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pease, M. S. (1926). Genetic studies inBrassica oleracea.J. Genet.16, 363–85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prell, H. (1921). Das Problem der Unbefruchtbarkeit.Naturw. Wschr. N.E.20, 440–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rothmaler, W. (1946). Artentstehung in historischer Zeit, am Beispiel der Unkräuter des Kulturleins (Linum usitatissimum).Züchter,17/18, 89–92.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sansome, E. R. (1932). Segmental interchange inPisnm sativum.Cytologia, Tokyo,3, 200–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schwanitz, F. (1950). Der Gigascharakter der Kulturpflanzen und seine Bedeutung für die Polyploidiezüchtung.Züchter,21, 65–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shimotomai, N. (1925). A karyological study ofBrassica.Bot. Mag., Tokyo,39, 122–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sikka, S. M. (1940). Cytogenetics ofBrassica hybrids and species.J. Genet.40, 441–509.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sinclair, Geo. (1824). On the Woburn perennial kale, a variety ofBrassica oleracea acephala fimbriata.Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond.5, 297–301.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sinskaya, E. N. (1927). Geno-systematical investigations of cultivatedBrassica.Bull. Appl. Bot.17, 1–166. (Russian with English summary.)

    Google Scholar 

  • Sinskaya, E. N. (1928). The oleiferous plants and root crops of the family Cruciferae.Bull. Appl. Bot.193, 1–648. (Russian with English summary.)

    Google Scholar 

  • Stout, A. B. (1922). Cyclic manifestation of sterility inBrassica pelcinensis andB. chinensis.Bot. Gaz.73, 110–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stout, A. B. (1938). The genetics of incompatibilities in homomorphic flowering plants.Bot. Rev.4, 275–369.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sutton, A. W. (1908).Brassica crosses.J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.),38, 337–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Winge, Ö. (1917). The chromosomes. Then numbers and general importance.C. R. Lab. Carlsberg,13, 131–275.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ruggles gates, R. Wild cabbages and the effects of cultivation. Journ. of Genetics 51, 363–372 (1953). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03023303

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03023303

Keywords

  • Pollen Tube
  • Polyi
  • Rosette Leave
  • Brussels Sprout
  • Wild Beet