Skip to main content

Seasonal Dynamics of Phytoplankton and Environmental Factors around the Chagwi-do off the West Coast of Jeju Island, Korea

Abstract

The dynamics of phytoplankton abundance with seasonal variation in physicochemical conditions were investigated monthly at 10 stations around the Chagwi-do off the west coast of Jeju Island, Korea, including inshore, middle shore, and offshore in the marine ranching area from September 2004 to November 2005. Water temperature varied from 12.1 to 28.9°C (average 18.8°C), and salinity from 28.9 to 34.9 psu (average 33.7 psu). The chlorophyll a concentration was 0.02-2.05 µg L1 (average 0.70 µg L1), and the maximum concentration occurred in the bottom layer in April. A total of 294 phytoplankton species belonging to 10 families was identified: 182 Bacillariophyceae, 52 Dinophyceae, 9 Chlorophyceae, 12 Cryptophyceae, 6 Chrysophyceae, 4 Dictyophyceae, 13 Euglenophyceae, 6 Prymnesiophyceae, 5 Prasinophyceae, and 5 Raphidophyceae. The standing crop was 2.21-48.69x104 cells L1 (average 9.23x 104 cells L1), and the maximum occurred in the bottom layer in April. Diatoms were most abundant throughout the year, followed by dinoflagellates and phytoflagellates. A phytoplankton bloom occurred twice: once in spring, peaking in April, and once in autumn, peaking in November. The spring bloom was represented by fourChaetoceros species andSkeletonema costatum; each contributed 10–20% of the total phytoplankton abundance. The autumn bloom comprised dinoflagellates, diatoms, and phytoflagellates, of which dinoflagellates were predominant.Gymnodinium conicum, Prorocentrum micans, andP. triestinum each contributed over 10% of the total phytoplankton abundance.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Affan, A. and J.B. Lee. 2004. Seasonal characteristics of phytoplankton dynamics and environmental factors in the coast of Mara-do and U-do, Jeju Island, Korea.Algae,9, 235–245.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chisholm, S.W. 1992. Phytoplankton size. p. 213–237. In:Primary productivity and biogeochemical cycles in the sea, ed. by P.G. Falkowski and A.D. Woodhead. Plenum Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Field, C.B., M.J. Behrenfeld, J.T. Randerson, and P. G. Falkowski. 1998. Primary production of the bio-sphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components.Science,281, 237–240.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gin, K.Y.H., S. Zhang, and Y.K. Lee. 2003. Phytoplankton community structure in Singapore’s coastal waters using HPLC pigment analysis and flow cytometry.J. Plankton Res.,25, 1507–1519.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grover, J.P. 1989. Phosphorus-dependent growth kinetics of 11 species of freshwater algae.Limnol. Oceanogr.,34, 341–348.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hambright, K.D. and T. Zohary. 2000. Phytoplankton species diversity controlled through competitive exclusion and physical disturbances.Limnol. Oceanogr.,45, 110–122.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harris, P.H. 1986. Phytoplankton ecology. Chapman and Hall, London. 384 p.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoshiai, G., T. Suzuki, T. Kamiyama, M. Yamasaki, and K. Ichimi. 2003. Water temperature and salinity during the occurrence ofDinophysis fortii and D. acuminate in Kesennuma Bay, northern Japan.Fish. Sci.,69, 1303–1315.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hyun, K.H. and I.C. Pang. 1998. Abnormally low salinity waters around Cheju in summer.Bull. Mar. Res. Inst. Cheju Nat. Univ.,22, 69–78.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hyun, K.H., I.C. Pang, J.H. Lee, and H.K. Rho. 1997. Water mass analysis in the East China Sea in summer and the northward route of the Tsushima Current.Bull. Mar. Res. Inst. Cheju Nat. Univ.,21, 85–101.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, J.B., B. Shynn, and D.W. Kang. 1999. Water mass properties and phytoplankton community dynamics in the East China Sea in the summer seasons, 1997–1998. p. 49–59. In: Proc.2 nd international workshop on oceanography and fisheries in the East China Sea, ‘the East China Sea’v. 2. Nagasaki University.

  • Litchman, E. and C.A. Klausmeyer. 2001. Competition of phytoplankton under fluctuating light.Am. Nat.,157, 170–187.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lovejoy, C., L. Legendre, and N.M. Price. 2002. Prolonged diatom blooms and microbial food web dynamics: experimental results from an Arctic polynya.Aquat. Microb. Ecol.,29, 267–278.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lund, J.W.C. 1949. Studies onAsterionella formosa. I. The origin and nature of the cells producing seasonal maxima.J. Ecol.,37, 389–419.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mask, A.C. and J. O’Brien. 1998. Wind-driven effects on the Yellow Sea Warm Current.J. Geophys. Res.,103, 30713- 30729.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ondrusek, M.E., R.R. Bidigare, S.T. Sweet, D.A. Defreitas, and J.M. Brooks. 1991. Distribution of phytoplankton pigments in the North Pacific Ocean in relation to physical and optical variability.Deep-Sea Res.,38, 243–266.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Padisak, J. 1993. The influence of different disturbance frequencies on the species richness, diversity and equitability of phytoplankton in shallow lakes.Hydrobiologia,249, 135–156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pang, I.C., H.K. Rho, J.H. Lee, and H.J. Lee. 1996. Water mass distribution and seasonal circulation northwest of Cheju in 1994.J. Korean Fish. Soc.,29, 862–875.

    Google Scholar 

  • Park, Y.H. 1986. Water characteristics and movements of the Yellow Sea Warm Current in winter.Prog. Oceangor.,17, 243–254.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parsons, T.R., L. Maita, and C.M. Lalli.1984.A manual of chemical and biological methods for seawater analysis. Pergamon Press, New York. 137 p.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reolke, D.L., P.M. Eldridge, and L.A. Cifuentes. 1999. A model of phytoplankton competition for limiting and nonlimiting nutrients: Implication for development of estuarine and near shore management schemes.Estuaries,22, 92–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reynolds, C.S., M. Dokulil, and J. Padisak. 2000. Understanding the assembly of phytoplankton in relation to the trophic spectrum: Where are we now? p. 147–152. In:The trophic spectrum revised: the influence of trophic state on the assembly of phytoplankton communities, ed. by C.S. Reynolds, M. Dokulil and J. Padisak. Development in Hydrobiology 150. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shannon, C.E. and W. Weaver. 1949. The mathematical theory of communication. The University of Illinois Press, Urban. 117 p.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sommer, U. 1995. An experimental test of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis using cultures of marine phytoplankton.Limnol. Oceanogr.,40, 1271–1277.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sommer, U. and S. Floder. 1999. Diversity in planktonic communities: An experimental test of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis.Limnol. Oceanogr.,44, 1114–1119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Steele, J.H. 1985. A comparison between terrestrial and marine ecological systems.Nature,313, 355–358.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Suh, H.L., Y.K. Cho, Y.H. Soh, and D.H. Kim. 1998. The 1996 mass mortality of macrobenthic animals in Cheju Island: A possible role of physical oceanographic factor.Korean J. Environ. Biol.,17, 175–182.

    Google Scholar 

  • Talling, J.F. 1955. The relative growth rates of three planktonic diatoms in relation to underwater radiation and temperature.Ann. Bot. N. S.,19, 329–341.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Joon-Baek Lee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Affan, A., Lee, JB., Kim, J.T. et al. Seasonal Dynamics of Phytoplankton and Environmental Factors around the Chagwi-do off the West Coast of Jeju Island, Korea. Ocean Sci. J. 42, 117–127 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03020879

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03020879

Key words

  • environmental factor
  • Jeju Island, marine
  • ranching
  • phytoplankton
  • seasonal dynamics